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Catherine Schaefer PhD

TitleResearch Scientist III
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
DepartmentDivision of Research
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-2644-055X Additional info
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    Other Positions
    TitleDirector, Research Program on Genes, Environment and Health
    InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
    DepartmentDivision of Research

    TitleManaging Director of Special Projects
    InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
    DepartmentDivision of Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Antioch College, Yellow Springs, OHBA06/1973Communications
    University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CAMS06/1977Epidemiology
    University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CAPhD06/1983Epidemiology
    Yale University, New Haven, CTPost-doc06/1987Psychiatric Epidemiology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Catherine Schaefer, PhD, joined the Division of Research in 1989. Dr. Schaefer’s primary research interests include the epidemiology of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, genetic epidemiology, and early antecedents of adult chronic disease, focusing especially on bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and multiple sclerosis. In collaboration with others at the Division of Research and scientists at UCSF, Dr. Schaefer began and heads the Research Program on Genes, Environment, and Health (RPGEH), a biobank that links biospecimens and genetic data with participant surveys and comprehensive electronic health records on a diverse cohort of 200,000 members of Kaiser Permanente in Northern California. The program serves as the foundation for the Kaiser Permanente Research Bank, which includes members from Kaiser Permanente regions across the country. The RPGEH is a resource for research on the genetic epidemiology and pharmacogenetics of many diseases and conditions.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R01MH069819     (SCHAEFER, CATHERINE ANN)Sep 28, 2005 - Aug 31, 2011
    NIH/NIMH
    Prenatal Determinants of Schizophrenia, II
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01MH085543     (SCHAEFER, CATHERINE ANN)Sep 30, 2008 - May 31, 2014
    NIH/NIMH
    Multi-Ethnic Genome-Wide Study of Bipolar Disorder
    Role: Principal Investigator

    RC2AG036607     (RISCH, NEIL J)Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2012
    NIH/NIA
    A Resource for Genetic Epidemiology Research in Adult Health and Aging
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Oni-Orisan A, Hoffmann TJ, Ranatunga D, Medina MW, Jorgenson E, Schaefer C, Krauss RM, Iribarren C, Risch N. Characterization of Statin Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Dose-Response Using Electronic Health Records in a Large Population-Based Cohort. Circ Genom Precis Med. 2018 Sep; 11(9):e002043. PMID: 30354326.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hoffmann TJ, Choquet H, Yin J, Banda Y, Kvale MN, Glymour M, Schaefer C, Risch N, Jorgenson E. A Large Multiethnic Genome-Wide Association Study of Adult Body Mass Index Identifies Novel Loci. Genetics. 2018 10; 210(2):499-515. PMID: 30108127.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Mowry EM, Hedström AK, Gianfrancesco MA, Shao X, Schaefer CA, Shen L, Bellesis KH, Briggs FBS, Olsson T, Alfredsson L, Barcellos LF. Incorporating machine learning approaches to assess putative environmental risk factors for multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018 Aug; 24:135-141. PMID: 30005356.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Choquet H, Paylakhi S, Kneeland SC, Thai KK, Hoffmann TJ, Yin J, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Tolman NG, Williams PA, Schaefer C, Melles RB, Risch N, John SWM, Nair KS, Jorgenson E. A multiethnic genome-wide association study of primary open-angle glaucoma identifies novel risk loci. Nat Commun. 2018 06 11; 9(1):2278. PMID: 29891935.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Wray NR, Ripke S, Mattheisen M, Trzaskowski M, Byrne EM, Abdellaoui A, Adams MJ, Agerbo E, Air TM, Andlauer TMF, Bacanu SA, Bækvad-Hansen M, Beekman AFT, Bigdeli TB, Binder EB, Blackwood DRH, Bryois J, Buttenschøn HN, Bybjerg-Grauholm J, Cai N, Castelao E, Christensen JH, Clarke TK, Coleman JIR, Colodro-Conde L, Couvy-Duchesne B, Craddock N, Crawford GE, Crowley CA, Dashti HS, Davies G, Deary IJ, Degenhardt F, Derks EM, Direk N, Dolan CV, Dunn EC, Eley TC, Eriksson N, Escott-Price V, Kiadeh FHF, Finucane HK, Forstner AJ, Frank J, Gaspar HA, Gill M, Giusti-Rodríguez P, Goes FS, Gordon SD, Grove J, Hall LS, Hannon E, Hansen CS, Hansen TF, Herms S, Hickie IB, Hoffmann P, Homuth G, Horn C, Hottenga JJ, Hougaard DM, Hu M, Hyde CL, Ising M, Jansen R, Jin F, Jorgenson E, Knowles JA, Kohane IS, Kraft J, Kretzschmar WW, Krogh J, Kutalik Z, Lane JM, Li Y, Li Y, Lind PA, Liu X, Lu L, MacIntyre DJ, MacKinnon DF, Maier RM, Maier W, Marchini J, Mbarek H, McGrath P, McGuffin P, Medland SE, Mehta D, Middeldorp CM, Mihailov E, Milaneschi Y, Milani L, Mill J, Mondimore FM, Montgomery GW, Mostafavi S, Mullins N, Nauck M, Ng B, Nivard MG, Nyholt DR, O'Reilly PF, Oskarsson H, Owen MJ, Painter JN, Pedersen CB, Pedersen MG, Peterson RE, Pettersson E, Peyrot WJ, Pistis G, Posthuma D, Purcell SM, Quiroz JA, Qvist P, Rice JP, Riley BP, Rivera M, Saeed Mirza S, Saxena R, Schoevers R, Schulte EC, Shen L, Shi J, Shyn SI, Sigurdsson E, Sinnamon GBC, Smit JH, Smith DJ, Stefansson H, Steinberg S, Stockmeier CA, Streit F, Strohmaier J, Tansey KE, Teismann H, Teumer A, Thompson W, Thomson PA, Thorgeirsson TE, Tian C, Traylor M, Treutlein J, Trubetskoy V, Uitterlinden AG, Umbricht D, Van der Auwera S, van Hemert AM, Viktorin A, Visscher PM, Wang Y, Webb BT, Weinsheimer SM, Wellmann J, Willemsen G, Witt SH, Wu Y, Xi HS, Yang J, Zhang F, Arolt V, Baune BT, Berger K, Boomsma DI, Cichon S, Dannlowski U, de Geus ECJ, DePaulo JR, Domenici E, Domschke K, Esko T, Grabe HJ, Hamilton SP, Hayward C, Heath AC, Hinds DA, Kendler KS, Kloiber S, Lewis G, Li QS, Lucae S, Madden PFA, Magnusson PK, Martin NG, McIntosh AM, Metspalu A, Mors O, Mortensen PB, Müller-Myhsok B, Nordentoft M, Nöthen MM, O'Donovan MC, Paciga SA, Pedersen NL, Penninx BWJH, Perlis RH, Porteous DJ, Potash JB, Preisig M, Rietschel M, Schaefer C, Schulze TG, Smoller JW, Stefansson K, Tiemeier H, Uher R, Völzke H, Weissman MM, Werge T, Winslow AR, Lewis CM, Levinson DF, Breen G, Børglum AD, Sullivan PF. Genome-wide association analyses identify 44 risk variants and refine the genetic architecture of major depression. Nat Genet. 2018 May; 50(5):668-681. PMID: 29700475.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Hoffmann TJ, Theusch E, Haldar T, Ranatunga DK, Jorgenson E, Medina MW, Kvale MN, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Krauss RM, Iribarren C, Risch N. A large electronic-health-record-based genome-wide study of serum lipids. Nat Genet. 2018 Mar; 50(3):401-413. PMID: 29507422.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Watts EL, Appleby PN, Albanes D, Black A, Chan JM, Chen C, Cirillo PM, Cohn BA, Cook MB, Donovan JL, Ferrucci L, Garland CF, Giles GG, Goodman PJ, Habel LA, Haiman CA, Holly JMP, Hoover RN, Kaaks R, Knekt P, Kolonel LN, Kubo T, Le Marchand L, Luostarinen T, MacInnis RJ, Mäenpää HO, Männistö S, Metter EJ, Milne RL, Nomura AMY, Oliver SE, Parsons JK, Peeters PH, Platz EA, Riboli E, Ricceri F, Rinaldi S, Rissanen H, Sawada N, Schaefer CA, Schenk JM, Stanczyk FZ, Stampfer M, Stattin P, Stenman UH, Tjønneland A, Trichopoulou A, Thompson IM, Tsugane S, Vatten L, Whittemore AS, Ziegler RG, Allen NE, Key TJ, Travis RC. Circulating sex hormones in relation to anthropometric, sociodemographic and behavioural factors in an international dataset of 12,300 men. PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0187741. PMID: 29281666.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Choquet H, Thai KK, Yin J, Hoffmann TJ, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Schaefer C, Risch N, Nair KS, Melles R, Jorgenson E. A large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study identifies novel genetic loci for intraocular pressure. Nat Commun. 2017 12 13; 8(1):2108. PMID: 29235454.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Gianfrancesco MA, Stridh P, Shao X, Rhead B, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Waldman A, Lotze T, Schreiner T, Belman A, Greenberg B, Weinstock-Guttman B, Aaen G, Tillema JM, Hart J, Caillier S, Ness J, Harris Y, Rubin J, Candee M, Krupp L, Gorman M, Benson L, Rodriguez M, Mar S, Kahn I, Rose J, Roalstad S, Casper TC, Shen L, Quach H, Quach D, Hillert J, Hedstrom A, Olsson T, Kockum I, Alfredsson L, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF, Waubant E. Genetic risk factors for pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2017 Oct 01; 1352458517733551. PMID: 28980494.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Hedström AK, Katsoulis M, Hössjer O, Bomfim IL, Oturai A, Sondergaard HB, Sellebjerg F, Ullum H, Thørner LW, Gustavsen MW, Harbo HF, Obradovic D, Gianfrancesco MA, Barcellos LF, Schaefer CA, Hillert J, Kockum I, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. The interaction between smoking and HLA genes in multiple sclerosis: replication and refinement. Eur J Epidemiol. 2017 10; 32(10):909-919. PMID: 28597127.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Jorgenson E, Thai KK, Hoffmann TJ, Sakoda LC, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Schaefer C, Risch N, Mertens J, Weisner C, Choquet H. Genetic contributors to variation in alcohol consumption vary by race/ethnicity in a large multi-ethnic genome-wide association study. Mol Psychiatry. 2017 09; 22(9):1359-1367. PMID: 28485404.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Gianfrancesco MA, Stridh P, Rhead B, Shao X, Xu E, Graves JS, Chitnis T, Waldman A, Lotze T, Schreiner T, Belman A, Greenberg B, Weinstock-Guttman B, Aaen G, Tillema JM, Hart J, Caillier S, Ness J, Harris Y, Rubin J, Candee M, Krupp L, Gorman M, Benson L, Rodriguez M, Mar S, Kahn I, Rose J, Roalstad S, Casper TC, Shen L, Quach H, Quach D, Hillert J, Bäärnhielm M, Hedstrom A, Olsson T, Kockum I, Alfredsson L, Metayer C, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF, Waubant E. Evidence for a causal relationship between low vitamin D, high BMI, and pediatric-onset MS. Neurology. 2017 Apr 25; 88(17):1623-1629. PMID: 28356466.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Barcellos LF, Bellesis KH, Shen L, Shao X, Chinn T, Frndak S, Drake A, Bakshi N, Marcus J, Schaefer C, Benedict RH. Remote assessment of verbal memory in MS patients using the California Verbal Learning Test. Mult Scler. 2018 Mar; 24(3):354-357. PMID: 28273777.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Gianfrancesco MA, Glymour MM, Walter S, Rhead B, Shao X, Shen L, Quach H, Hubbard A, Jónsdóttir I, Stefánsson K, Strid P, Hillert J, Hedström A, Olsson T, Kockum I, Schaefer C, Alfredsson L, Barcellos LF. Causal Effect of Genetic Variants Associated With Body Mass Index on Multiple Sclerosis Susceptibility. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 02 01; 185(3):162-171. PMID: 28073764.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Hoffmann TJ, Passarelli MN, Graff RE, Emami NC, Sakoda LC, Jorgenson E, Habel LA, Shan J, Ranatunga DK, Quesenberry CP, Chao CR, Ghai NR, Aaronson D, Presti J, Nordström T, Wang Z, Berndt SI, Chanock SJ, Mosley JD, Klein RJ, Middha M, Lilja H, Melander O, Kvale MN, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N, Van Den Eeden SK, Witte JS. Genome-wide association study of prostate-specific antigen levels identifies novel loci independent of prostate cancer. Nat Commun. 2017 01 31; 8:14248. PMID: 28139693.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Hedderson MM, Ferrara A, Avalos LA, Van den Eeden SK, Gunderson EP, Li DK, Altschuler A, Woo S, Rowell S, Choudhary V, Xu F, Flanagan T, Schaefer C, Croen LA. The Kaiser Permanente Northern California research program on genes, environment, and health (RPGEH) pregnancy cohort: study design, methodology and baseline characteristics. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2016 11 29; 16(1):381. PMID: 27899076.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Hoffmann TJ, Ehret GB, Nandakumar P, Ranatunga D, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Iribarren C, Chakravarti A, Risch N. Genome-wide association analyses using electronic health records identify new loci influencing blood pressure variation. Nat Genet. 2017 01; 49(1):54-64. PMID: 27841878.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hoffmann TJ, Keats BJ, Yoshikawa N, Schaefer C, Risch N, Lustig LR. A Large Genome-Wide Association Study of Age-Related Hearing Impairment Using Electronic Health Records. PLoS Genet. 2016 Oct; 12(10):e1006371. PMID: 27764096.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Rhead B, Bäärnhielm M, Gianfrancesco M, Mok A, Shao X, Quach H, Shen L, Schaefer C, Link J, Gyllenberg A, Hedström AK, Olsson T, Hillert J, Kockum I, Glymour MM, Alfredsson L, Barcellos LF. Mendelian randomization shows a causal effect of low vitamin D on multiple sclerosis risk. Neurol Genet. 2016 Oct; 2(5):e97. PMID: 27652346; PMCID: PMC5022843.
    20. George MF, Briggs FB, Shao X, Gianfrancesco MA, Kockum I, Harbo HF, Celius EG, Bos SD, Hedström A, Shen L, Bernstein A, Alfredsson L, Hillert J, Olsson T, Patsopoulos NA, De Jager PL, Oturai AB, Søndergaard HB, Sellebjerg F, Sorensen PS, Gomez R, Caillier SJ, Cree BA, Oksenberg JR, Hauser SL, D'Alfonso S, Leone MA, Martinelli Boneschi F, Sorosina M, van der Mei I, Taylor BV, Zhou Y, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF. Multiple sclerosis risk loci and disease severity in 7,125 individuals from 10 studies. Neurol Genet. 2016 Aug; 2(4):e87. PMID: 27540591; PMCID: PMC4974846.
    21. Cheslack-Postava K, Cremers S, Bao Y, Shen L, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Maternal serum cytokine levels and risk of bipolar disorder. Brain Behav Immun. 2017 Jul; 63:108-114. PMID: 27477922.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Freedman D, Bao Y, Shen L, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Maternal T. gondii, offspring bipolar disorder and neurocognition. Psychiatry Res. 2016 09 30; 243:382-9. PMID: 27449007.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Hedström AK, Mowry EM, Gianfrancesco MA, Shao X, Schaefer CA, Shen L, Olsson T, Barcellos LF, Alfredsson L. High consumption of coffee is associated with decreased multiple sclerosis risk; results from two independent studies. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2016 May; 87(5):454-60. PMID: 26940586; PMCID: PMC4853555.
    24. Travis RC, Appleby PN, Martin RM, Holly JMP, Albanes D, Black A, Bueno-de-Mesquita HBA, Chan JM, Chen C, Chirlaque MD, Cook MB, Deschasaux M, Donovan JL, Ferrucci L, Galan P, Giles GG, Giovannucci EL, Gunter MJ, Habel LA, Hamdy FC, Helzlsouer KJ, Hercberg S, Hoover RN, Janssen JAMJL, Kaaks R, Kubo T, Le Marchand L, Metter EJ, Mikami K, Morris JK, Neal DE, Neuhouser ML, Ozasa K, Palli D, Platz EA, Pollak M, Price AJ, Roobol MJ, Schaefer C, Schenk JM, Severi G, Stampfer MJ, Stattin P, Tamakoshi A, Tangen CM, Touvier M, Wald NJ, Weiss NS, Ziegler RG, Key TJ, Allen NE. A Meta-analysis of Individual Participant Data Reveals an Association between Circulating Levels of IGF-I and Prostate Cancer Risk. Cancer Res. 2016 04 15; 76(8):2288-2300. PMID: 26921328; PMCID: PMC4873385 [Available on 10/15/16].
    25. Jorgenson E, Melles RB, Hoffmann TJ, Jia X, Sakoda LC, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Schaefer C, Risch N, Shen L. Common coding variants in the HLA-DQB1 region confer susceptibility to age-related macular degeneration. Eur J Hum Genet. 2016 07; 24(7):1049-55. PMID: 26733291.
      View in: PubMed
    26. George MF, Holingue CB, Briggs FB, Shao X, Bellesis KH, Whitmer RA, Schaefer C, Benedict RH, Barcellos LF. Feasibility study for remote assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neuromedicine. 2016; 1(8):10-18. PMID: 28255581.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Fineberg AM, Ellman LM, Schaefer CA, Maxwell SD, Shen L, H Chaudhury N, Cook AL, Bresnahan MA, Susser ES, Brown AS. Fetal exposure to maternal stress and risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorders among offspring: Differential influences of fetal sex. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Feb 28; 236:91-7. PMID: 26753951; PMCID: PMC4767153 [Available on 02/28/17].
    28. Shen L, Melles RB, Metlapally R, Barcellos L, Schaefer C, Risch N, Herrinton LJ, Wildsoet C, Jorgenson E. The Association of Refractive Error with Glaucoma in a Multiethnic Population. Ophthalmology. 2016 Jan; 123(1):92-101. PMID: 26260281; PMCID: PMC4695304 [Available on 01/01/17].
    29. Shen L, Hoffmann TJ, Melles RB, Sakoda LC, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Schaefer C, Risch N, Jorgenson E. Differences in the Genetic Susceptibility to Age-Related Macular Degeneration Clinical Subtypes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2015 Jul; 56(8):4290-9. PMID: 26176866; PMCID: PMC4509058.
    30. Banda Y, Kvale MN, Hoffmann TJ, Hesselson SE, Ranatunga D, Tang H, Sabatti C, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Henderson M, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Ludwig D, Olberg D, Quesenberry CP, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Sciortino S, Shen L, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Whitmer RA, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1285-95. PMID: 26092716; PMCID: PMC4574246.
    31. Lapham K, Kvale MN, Lin J, Connell S, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Fang L, Hesselson S, Hoffmann TJ, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Ludwig D, Matsuguchi T, McGuire WB, Miles S, Quesenberry CP, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Whitmer RA, Kwok PY, Risch N, Schaefer C, Blackburn EH. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1061-72. PMID: 26092717.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Kvale MN, Hesselson S, Hoffmann TJ, Cao Y, Chan D, Connell S, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Eshragh J, Finn A, Gollub J, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Lao R, Lu Y, Ludwig D, Mathauda GK, McGuire WB, Mei G, Miles S, Mittman M, Patil M, Quesenberry CP, Ranatunga D, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Shapero M, Shen L, Shenoy T, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Wan E, Webster T, Whitmer RA, Wong S, Zau C, Zhan Y, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1051-60. PMID: 26092718; PMCID: PMC4574249.
    33. Hoffmann TJ, Van Den Eeden SK, Sakoda LC, Jorgenson E, Habel LA, Graff RE, Passarelli MN, Cario CL, Emami NC, Chao CR, Ghai NR, Shan J, Ranatunga DK, Quesenberry CP, Aaronson D, Presti J, Wang Z, Berndt SI, Chanock SJ, McDonnell SK, French AJ, Schaid DJ, Thibodeau SN, Li Q, Freedman ML, Penney KL, Mucci LA, Haiman CA, Henderson BE, Seminara D, Kvale MN, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N, Witte JS. A large multiethnic genome-wide association study of prostate cancer identifies novel risk variants and substantial ethnic differences. Cancer Discov. 2015 Aug; 5(8):878-91. PMID: 26034056; PMCID: PMC4527942.
    34. Wen CC, Yee SW, Liang X, Hoffmann TJ, Kvale MN, Banda Y, Jorgenson E, Schaefer C, Risch N, Giacomini KM. Genome-wide association study identifies ABCG2 (BCRP) as an allopurinol transporter and a determinant of drug response. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2015 May; 97(5):518-25. PMID: 25676789; PMCID: PMC4479153.
    35. Hoffmann TJ, Sakoda LC, Shen L, Jorgenson E, Habel LA, Liu J, Kvale MN, Asgari MM, Banda Y, Corley D, Kushi LH, Quesenberry CP, Schaefer C, Van Den Eeden SK, Risch N, Witte JS. Imputation of the rare HOXB13 G84E mutation and cancer risk in a large population-based cohort. PLoS Genet. 2015 Jan; 11(1):e1004930. PMID: 25629170; PMCID: PMC4309593.
    36. Freedman D, Brown AS, Shen L, Schaefer CA. Perinatal oxytocin increases the risk of offspring bipolar disorder and childhood cognitive impairment. J Affect Disord. 2015 Mar 01; 173:65-72. PMID: 25462398; PMCID: PMC4258509.
    37. Pittock SJ, Lennon VA, Bakshi N, Shen L, McKeon A, Quach H, Briggs FB, Bernstein AL, Schaefer CA, Barcellos LF. Seroprevalence of aquaporin-4-IgG in a northern California population representative cohort of multiple sclerosis. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Nov; 71(11):1433-6. PMID: 25178362.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hedström AK, Bomfim IL, Barcellos LF, Briggs F, Schaefer C, Kockum I, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. Interaction between passive smoking and two HLA genes with regard to multiple sclerosis risk. Int J Epidemiol. 2014 Dec; 43(6):1791-8. PMID: 25324153; PMCID: PMC4276064.
    39. Wall JD, Tang LF, Zerbe B, Kvale MN, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N. Estimating genotype error rates from high-coverage next-generation sequence data. Genome Res. 2014 Nov; 24(11):1734-9. PMID: 25304867; PMCID: PMC4216915.
    40. Briggs FB, Acuna B, Shen L, Ramsay P, Quach H, Bernstein A, Bellesis KH, Kockum IS, Hedström AK, Alfredsson L, Olsson T, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF. Smoking and risk of multiple sclerosis: evidence of modification by NAT1 variants. Epidemiology. 2014 Jul; 25(4):605-14. PMID: 24625537.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Canetta SE, Bao Y, Co MD, Ennis FA, Cruz J, Terajima M, Shen L, Kellendonk C, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Serological documentation of maternal influenza exposure and bipolar disorder in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2014 May; 171(5):557-63. PMID: 24480930; PMCID: PMC4025955.
    42. Gianfrancesco MA, Acuna B, Shen L, Briggs FB, Quach H, Bellesis KH, Bernstein A, Hedstrom AK, Kockum I, Alfredsson L, Olsson T, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF. Obesity during childhood and adolescence increases susceptibility to multiple sclerosis after accounting for established genetic and environmental risk factors. Obes Res Clin Pract. 2014 Sep-Oct; 8(5):e435-47. PMID: 25263833; PMCID: PMC4180039.
    43. Briggs FB, Acuña BS, Shen L, Bellesis KH, Ramsay PP, Quach H, Bernstein A, Schaefer C, Barcellos LF. Adverse socioeconomic position during the life course is associated with multiple sclerosis. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Jul; 68(7):622-9. PMID: 24577137.
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    44. Hedström AK, Lima Bomfim I, Barcellos L, Gianfrancesco M, Schaefer C, Kockum I, Olsson T, Alfredsson L. Interaction between adolescent obesity and HLA risk genes in the etiology of multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2014 Mar 11; 82(10):865-72. PMID: 24500647; PMCID: PMC3959752.
    45. Patsopoulos NA, Barcellos LF, Hintzen RQ, Schaefer C, van Duijn CM, Noble JA, Raj T, Gourraud PA, Stranger BE, Oksenberg J, Olsson T, Taylor BV, Sawcer S, Hafler DA, Carrington M, De Jager PL, de Bakker PI. Fine-mapping the genetic association of the major histocompatibility complex in multiple sclerosis: HLA and non-HLA effects. PLoS Genet. 2013 Nov; 9(11):e1003926. PMID: 24278027; PMCID: PMC3836799.
    46. Talati A, Bao Y, Kaufman J, Shen L, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and bipolar disorder in offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2013 Oct; 170(10):1178-85. PMID: 24084820; PMCID: PMC4086419.
    47. Beecham AH, Patsopoulos NA, Xifara DK, Davis MF, Kemppinen A, Cotsapas C, Shah TS, Spencer C, Booth D, Goris A, Oturai A, Saarela J, Fontaine B, Hemmer B, Martin C, Zipp F, D'Alfonso S, Martinelli-Boneschi F, Taylor B, Harbo HF, Kockum I, Hillert J, Olsson T, Ban M, Oksenberg JR, Hintzen R, Barcellos LF, Agliardi C, Alfredsson L, Alizadeh M, Anderson C, Andrews R, Søndergaard HB, Baker A, Band G, Baranzini SE, Barizzone N, Barrett J, Bellenguez C, Bergamaschi L, Bernardinelli L, Berthele A, Biberacher V, Binder TM, Blackburn H, Bomfim IL, Brambilla P, Broadley S, Brochet B, Brundin L, Buck D, Butzkueven H, Caillier SJ, Camu W, Carpentier W, Cavalla P, Celius EG, Coman I, Comi G, Corrado L, Cosemans L, Cournu-Rebeix I, Cree BA, Cusi D, Damotte V, Defer G, Delgado SR, Deloukas P, di Sapio A, Dilthey AT, Donnelly P, Dubois B, Duddy M, Edkins S, Elovaara I, Esposito F, Evangelou N, Fiddes B, Field J, Franke A, Freeman C, Frohlich IY, Galimberti D, Gieger C, Gourraud PA, Graetz C, Graham A, Grummel V, Guaschino C, Hadjixenofontos A, Hakonarson H, Halfpenny C, Hall G, Hall P, Hamsten A, Harley J, Harrower T, Hawkins C, Hellenthal G, Hillier C, Hobart J, Hoshi M, Hunt SE, Jagodic M, Jelcic I, Jochim A, Kendall B, Kermode A, Kilpatrick T, Koivisto K, Konidari I, Korn T, Kronsbein H, Langford C, Larsson M, Lathrop M, Lebrun-Frenay C, Lechner-Scott J, Lee MH, Leone MA, Leppä V, Liberatore G, Lie BA, Lill CM, Lindén M, Link J, Luessi F, Lycke J, Macciardi F, Männistö S, Manrique CP, Martin R, Martinelli V, Mason D, Mazibrada G, McCabe C, Mero IL, Mescheriakova J, Moutsianas L, Myhr KM, Nagels G, Nicholas R, Nilsson P, Piehl F, Pirinen M, Price SE, Quach H, Reunanen M, Robberecht W, Robertson NP, Rodegher M, Rog D, Salvetti M, Schnetz-Boutaud NC, Sellebjerg F, Selter RC, Schaefer C, Shaunak S, Shen L, Shields S, Siffrin V, Slee M, Sorensen PS, Sorosina M, Sospedra M, Spurkland A, Strange A, Sundqvist E, Thijs V, Thorpe J, Ticca A, Tienari P, van Duijn C, Visser EM, Vucic S, Westerlind H, Wiley JS, Wilkins A, Wilson JF, Winkelmann J, Zajicek J, Zindler E, Haines JL, Pericak-Vance MA, Ivinson AJ, Stewart G, Hafler D, Hauser SL, Compston A, McVean G, De Jager P, Sawcer SJ, McCauley JL. Analysis of immune-related loci identifies 48 new susceptibility variants for multiple sclerosis. Nat Genet. 2013 Nov; 45(11):1353-60. PMID: 24076602.
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    48. Ahmed AT, Warton EM, Schaefer CA, Shen L, McIntyre RS. The effect of bariatric surgery on psychiatric course among patients with bipolar disorder. Bipolar Disord. 2013 Nov; 15(7):753-63. PMID: 23909994; PMCID: PMC3844030.
    49. Parboosing R, Bao Y, Shen L, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Gestational influenza and bipolar disorder in adult offspring. JAMA Psychiatry. 2013 Jul; 70(7):677-85. PMID: 23699867.
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    50. Brown A, Bao Y, McKeague I, Shen L, Schaefer C. Parental age and risk of bipolar disorder in offspring. Psychiatry Res. 2013 Aug 15; 208(3):225-31. PMID: 23790979; PMCID: PMC3725196.
    51. Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Byers AL, McCormick M, Schaefer C, Whitmer RA. Midlife vs late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: differential effects for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 May; 69(5):493-8. PMID: 22566581; PMCID: PMC3704214.
    52. Manolio TA, Weis BK, Cowie CC, Hoover RN, Hudson K, Kramer BS, Berg C, Collins R, Ewart W, Gaziano JM, Hirschfeld S, Marcus PM, Masys D, McCarty CA, McLaughlin J, Patel AV, Peakman T, Pedersen NL, Schaefer C, Scott JA, Sprosen T, Walport M, Collins FS. New models for large prospective studies: is there a better way? Am J Epidemiol. 2012 May 01; 175(9):859-66. PMID: 22411865; PMCID: PMC3339313.
    53. Bao Y, Ibram G, Blaner WS, Quesenberry CP, Shen L, McKeague IW, Schaefer CA, Susser ES, Brown AS. Low maternal retinol as a risk factor for schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophr Res. 2012 May; 137(1-3):159-65. PMID: 22381190; PMCID: PMC3520602.
    54. Terry MB, Schaefer CA, Flom JD, Wei Y, Tehranifar P, Liao Y, Buka S, Michels KB. Prenatal smoke exposure and mammographic density in mid-life. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2011 Dec; 2(6):340-52. PMID: 23378890; PMCID: PMC3559186.
    55. Hoffmann TJ, Zhan Y, Kvale MN, Hesselson SE, Gollub J, Iribarren C, Lu Y, Mei G, Purdy MM, Quesenberry C, Rowell S, Shapero MH, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van den Eeden SK, Walter L, Webster T, Whitmer RA, Finn A, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm. Genomics. 2011 Dec; 98(6):422-30. PMID: 21903159; PMCID: PMC3502750.
    56. Sawcer S, Hellenthal G, Pirinen M, Spencer CC, Patsopoulos NA, Moutsianas L, Dilthey A, Su Z, Freeman C, Hunt SE, Edkins S, Gray E, Booth DR, Potter SC, Goris A, Band G, Oturai AB, Strange A, Saarela J, Bellenguez C, Fontaine B, Gillman M, Hemmer B, Gwilliam R, Zipp F, Jayakumar A, Martin R, Leslie S, Hawkins S, Giannoulatou E, D'alfonso S, Blackburn H, Martinelli Boneschi F, Liddle J, Harbo HF, Perez ML, Spurkland A, Waller MJ, Mycko MP, Ricketts M, Comabella M, Hammond N, Kockum I, McCann OT, Ban M, Whittaker P, Kemppinen A, Weston P, Hawkins C, Widaa S, Zajicek J, Dronov S, Robertson N, Bumpstead SJ, Barcellos LF, Ravindrarajah R, Abraham R, Alfredsson L, Ardlie K, Aubin C, Baker A, Baker K, Baranzini SE, Bergamaschi L, Bergamaschi R, Bernstein A, Berthele A, Boggild M, Bradfield JP, Brassat D, Broadley SA, Buck D, Butzkueven H, Capra R, Carroll WM, Cavalla P, Celius EG, Cepok S, Chiavacci R, Clerget-Darpoux F, Clysters K, Comi G, Cossburn M, Cournu-Rebeix I, Cox MB, Cozen W, Cree BA, Cross AH, Cusi D, Daly MJ, Davis E, de Bakker PI, Debouverie M, D'hooghe MB, Dixon K, Dobosi R, Dubois B, Ellinghaus D, Elovaara I, Esposito F, Fontenille C, Foote S, Franke A, Galimberti D, Ghezzi A, Glessner J, Gomez R, Gout O, Graham C, Grant SF, Guerini FR, Hakonarson H, Hall P, Hamsten A, Hartung HP, Heard RN, Heath S, Hobart J, Hoshi M, Infante-Duarte C, Ingram G, Ingram W, Islam T, Jagodic M, Kabesch M, Kermode AG, Kilpatrick TJ, Kim C, Klopp N, Koivisto K, Larsson M, Lathrop M, Lechner-Scott JS, Leone MA, Leppä V, Liljedahl U, Bomfim IL, Lincoln RR, Link J, Liu J, Lorentzen AR, Lupoli S, Macciardi F, Mack T, Marriott M, Martinelli V, Mason D, McCauley JL, Mentch F, Mero IL, Mihalova T, Montalban X, Mottershead J, Myhr KM, Naldi P, Ollier W, Page A, Palotie A, Pelletier J, Piccio L, Pickersgill T, Piehl F, Pobywajlo S, Quach HL, Ramsay PP, Reunanen M, Reynolds R, Rioux JD, Rodegher M, Roesner S, Rubio JP, Rückert IM, Salvetti M, Salvi E, Santaniello A, Schaefer CA, Schreiber S, Schulze C, Scott RJ, Sellebjerg F, Selmaj KW, Sexton D, Shen L, Simms-Acuna B, Skidmore S, Sleiman PM, Smestad C, Sørensen PS, Søndergaard HB, Stankovich J, Strange RC, Sulonen AM, Sundqvist E, Syvänen AC, Taddeo F, Taylor B, Blackwell JM, Tienari P, Bramon E, Tourbah A, Brown MA, Tronczynska E, Casas JP, Tubridy N, Corvin A, Vickery J, Jankowski J, Villoslada P, Markus HS, Wang K, Mathew CG, Wason J, Palmer CN, Wichmann HE, Plomin R, Willoughby E, Rautanen A, Winkelmann J, Wittig M, Trembath RC, Yaouanq J, Viswanathan AC, Zhang H, Wood NW, Zuvich R, Deloukas P, Langford C, Duncanson A, Oksenberg JR, Pericak-Vance MA, Haines JL, Olsson T, Hillert J, Ivinson AJ, De Jager PL, Peltonen L, Stewart GJ, Hafler DA, Hauser SL, McVean G, Donnelly P, Compston A. Genetic risk and a primary role for cell-mediated immune mechanisms in multiple sclerosis. Nature. 2011 Aug 10; 476(7359):214-9. PMID: 21833088.
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    57. Hoffmann TJ, Kvale MN, Hesselson SE, Zhan Y, Aquino C, Cao Y, Cawley S, Chung E, Connell S, Eshragh J, Ewing M, Gollub J, Henderson M, Hubbell E, Iribarren C, Kaufman J, Lao RZ, Lu Y, Ludwig D, Mathauda GK, McGuire W, Mei G, Miles S, Purdy MM, Quesenberry C, Ranatunga D, Rowell S, Sadler M, Shapero MH, Shen L, Shenoy TR, Smethurst D, Van den Eeden SK, Walter L, Wan E, Wearley R, Webster T, Wen CC, Weng L, Whitmer RA, Williams A, Wong SC, Zau C, Finn A, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Next generation genome-wide association tool: design and coverage of a high-throughput European-optimized SNP array. Genomics. 2011 Aug; 98(2):79-89. PMID: 21565264.
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    58. Harper KN, Hibbeln JR, Deckelbaum R, Quesenberry CP, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Maternal serum docosahexaenoic acid and schizophrenia spectrum disorders in adult offspring. Schizophr Res. 2011 May; 128(1-3):30-6. PMID: 21324652; PMCID: PMC3085558.
    59. Beck DM, Schaefer C, Pang K, Carlson SM. Executive Function in Preschool Children: Test-Retest Reliability. J Cogn Dev. 2011 Jan 01; 12(2):169-193. PMID: 21643523.
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    60. Susser E, Buka S, Schaefer CA, Andrews H, Cirillo PM, Factor-Litvak P, Gillman M, Goldstein JM, Henry PI, Lumey LH, McKeague IW, Michels KB, Terry MB, Cohn BA. The Early Determinants of Adult Health Study. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2011; 2(6):311-321. PMID: 25126404.
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    61. Ellman LM, Deicken RF, Vinogradov S, Kremen WS, Poole JH, Kern DM, Tsai WY, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Structural brain alterations in schizophrenia following fetal exposure to the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. Schizophr Res. 2010 Aug; 121(1-3):46-54. PMID: 20553865; PMCID: PMC2910151.
    62. Kranick JA, Schaefer C, Rowell S, Desai M, Petrek JA, Hiatt RA, Senie RT. Is pregnancy after breast cancer safe? Breast J. 2010 Jul-Aug; 16(4):404-11. PMID: 20522097.
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    63. Kremen WS, Vinogradov S, Poole JH, Schaefer CA, Deicken RF, Factor-Litvak P, Brown AS. Cognitive decline in schizophrenia from childhood to midlife: a 33-year longitudinal birth cohort study. Schizophr Res. 2010 May; 118(1-3):1-5. PMID: 20153140; PMCID: PMC3184642.
    64. Brown AS, Vinogradov S, Kremen WS, Poole JH, Deicken RF, Penner JD, McKeague IW, Kochetkova A, Kern D, Schaefer CA. Prenatal exposure to maternal infection and executive dysfunction in adult schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jun; 166(6):683-90. PMID: 19369317; PMCID: PMC2885160.
    65. Brown AS, Deicken RF, Vinogradov S, Kremen WS, Poole JH, Penner JD, Kochetkova A, Kern D, Schaefer CA. Prenatal infection and cavum septum pellucidum in adult schizophrenia. Schizophr Res. 2009 Mar; 108(1-3):285-7. PMID: 19135339; PMCID: PMC2821035.
    66. Roddam AW, Allen NE, Appleby P, Key TJ, Ferrucci L, Carter HB, Metter EJ, Chen C, Weiss NS, Fitzpatrick A, Hsing AW, Lacey JV, Helzlsouer K, Rinaldi S, Riboli E, Kaaks R, Janssen JA, Wildhagen MF, Schröder FH, Platz EA, Pollak M, Giovannucci E, Schaefer C, Quesenberry CP, Vogelman JH, Severi G, English DR, Giles GG, Stattin P, Hallmans G, Johansson M, Chan JM, Gann P, Oliver SE, Holly JM, Donovan J, Meyer F, Bairati I, Galan P. Insulin-like growth factors, their binding proteins, and prostate cancer risk: analysis of individual patient data from 12 prospective studies. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Oct 07; 149(7):461-71, W83-8. PMID: 18838726.
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    67. Insel BJ, Schaefer CA, McKeague IW, Susser ES, Brown AS. Maternal iron deficiency and the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2008 Oct; 65(10):1136-44. PMID: 18838630; PMCID: PMC3656467.
    68. Waddington JL, Brown AS, Lane A, Schaefer CA, Goetz RR, Bresnahan M, Susser ES. Congenital anomalies and early functional impairments in a prospective birth cohort: risk of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder in adulthood. Br J Psychiatry. 2008 Apr; 192(4):264-7. PMID: 18378985.
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    69. Bresnahan M, Begg MD, Brown A, Schaefer C, Sohler N, Insel B, Vella L, Susser E. Race and risk of schizophrenia in a US birth cohort: another example of health disparity? Int J Epidemiol. 2007 Aug; 36(4):751-8. PMID: 17440031.
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    70. Giacomini KM, Brett CM, Altman RB, Benowitz NL, Dolan ME, Flockhart DA, Johnson JA, Hayes DF, Klein T, Krauss RM, Kroetz DL, McLeod HL, Nguyen AT, Ratain MJ, Relling MV, Reus V, Roden DM, Schaefer CA, Shuldiner AR, Skaar T, Tantisira K, Tyndale RF, Wang L, Weinshilboum RM, Weiss ST, Zineh I. The pharmacogenetics research network: from SNP discovery to clinical drug response. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Mar; 81(3):328-45. PMID: 17339863; PMCID: PMC5006950.
    71. Brown AS, Bottiglieri T, Schaefer CA, Quesenberry CP, Liu L, Bresnahan M, Susser ES. Elevated prenatal homocysteine levels as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007 Jan; 64(1):31-9. PMID: 17199052.
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    72. Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Quesenberry CP, Shen L, Susser ES. No evidence of relation between maternal exposure to herpes simplex virus type 2 and risk of schizophrenia? Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Dec; 163(12):2178-80. PMID: 17151171.
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    73. Herman DB, Brown AS, Opler MG, Desai M, Malaspina D, Bresnahan M, Schaefer CA, Susser ES. Does unwantedness of pregnancy predict schizophrenia in the offspring? Findings from a prospective birth cohort study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2006 Aug; 41(8):605-10. PMID: 16732398.
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    74. Babulas V, Factor-Litvak P, Goetz R, Schaefer CA, Brown AS. Prenatal exposure to maternal genital and reproductive infections and adult schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 May; 163(5):927-9. PMID: 16648337.
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    75. Glatt CE, Carlson E, Taylor TR, Risch N, Reus VI, Schaefer CA. Response to Zhang et al. (2005): loss-of-function mutation in tryptophan hydroxylase-2 identified in unipolar major depression. Neuron 45, 11-16. Neuron. 2005 Dec 08; 48(5):704-5; author reply 705-6. PMID: 16337902.
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    76. Bresnahan M, Schaefer CA, Brown AS, Susser ES. Prenatal determinants of schizophrenia: what we have learned thus far? Epidemiol Psichiatr Soc. 2005 Oct-Dec; 14(4):194-7. PMID: 16396427.
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    77. Insel BJ, Brown AS, Bresnahan MA, Schaefer CA, Susser ES. Maternal-fetal blood incompatibility and the risk of schizophrenia in offspring. Schizophr Res. 2005 Dec 15; 80(2-3):331-42. PMID: 16006103.
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    78. Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Quesenberry CP, Liu L, Babulas VP, Susser ES. Maternal exposure to toxoplasmosis and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2005 Apr; 162(4):767-73. PMID: 15800151.
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    79. Habel LA, Schaefer CA, Levine P, Bhat AK, Elliott G. Treatment with stimulants among youths in a large California health plan. J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2005 Feb; 15(1):62-7. PMID: 15741787.
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    80. Brown AS, Begg MD, Gravenstein S, Schaefer CA, Wyatt RJ, Bresnahan M, Babulas VP, Susser ES. Serologic evidence of prenatal influenza in the etiology of schizophrenia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2004 Aug; 61(8):774-80. PMID: 15289276.
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    81. Brown AS, Hooton J, Schaefer CA, Zhang H, Petkova E, Babulas V, Perrin M, Gorman JM, Susser ES. Elevated maternal interleukin-8 levels and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2004 May; 161(5):889-95. PMID: 15121655.
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    82. Coates AO, Schaefer CA, Alexander JL. Detection of postpartum depression and anxiety in a large health plan. J Behav Health Serv Res. 2004 Apr-Jun; 31(2):117-33. PMID: 15255221.
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    83. Opler MG, Brown AS, Graziano J, Desai M, Zheng W, Schaefer C, Factor-Litvak P, Susser ES. Prenatal lead exposure, delta-aminolevulinic acid, and schizophrenia. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Apr; 112(5):548-52. PMID: 15064159.
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    84. Leabman MK, Huang CC, DeYoung J, Carlson EJ, Taylor TR, de la Cruz M, Johns SJ, Stryke D, Kawamoto M, Urban TJ, Kroetz DL, Ferrin TE, Clark AG, Risch N, Herskowitz I, Giacomini KM. Natural variation in human membrane transporter genes reveals evolutionary and functional constraints. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 May 13; 100(10):5896-901. PMID: 12719533; PMCID: PMC156298.
    85. Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Wyatt RJ, Begg MD, Goetz R, Bresnahan MA, Harkavy-Friedman J, Gorman JM, Malaspina D, Susser ES. Paternal age and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Sep; 159(9):1528-33. PMID: 12202273; PMCID: PMC2989614.
    86. Susser ES, Schaefer CA, Brown AS, Begg MD, Wyatt RJ. The design of the prenatal determinants of schizophrenia study. Schizophr Bull. 2000; 26(2):257-73. PMID: 10885629.
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    87. Schaefer CA, Brown AS, Wyatt RJ, Kline J, Begg MD, Bresnahan MA, Susser ES. Maternal prepregnant body mass and risk of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Schizophr Bull. 2000; 26(2):275-86. PMID: 10885630.
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    88. Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Wyatt RJ, Goetz R, Begg MD, Gorman JM, Susser ES. Maternal exposure to respiratory infections and adult schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a prospective birth cohort study. Schizophr Bull. 2000; 26(2):287-95. PMID: 10885631.
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    89. Bresnahan MA, Brown AS, Schaefer CA, Begg MD, Wyatt RJ, Susser ES. Incidence and cumulative risk of treated schizophrenia in the prenatal determinants of schizophrenia study. Schizophr Bull. 2000; 26(2):297-308. PMID: 10885632.
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    90. Walter LJ, Schaefer C, Albright L, Parthasarathy S, Hunkeler EM, Westphal J, Williams M. Role of a psychiatric outcome study in a large scale quality improvement project. Eval Program Plann. 1999 May; 22(2):233-43. PMID: 24011416.
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    91. Caan B, Coates A, Schaefer C, Finkler L, Sternfeld B, Corbett K. Women gain weight 1 year after smoking cessation while dietary intake temporarily increases. J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Nov; 96(11):1150-5. PMID: 8906140.
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    92. Witt DR, Schaefer C, Hallam P, Wi S, Blumberg B, Fishbach A, Holtzman J, Kornfeld S, Lee R, Nemzer L, Palmer R. Cystic fibrosis heterozygote screening in 5,161 pregnant women. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Apr; 58(4):823-35. PMID: 8644747; PMCID: PMC1914676.
    93. Schaefer C, Quesenberry CP, Wi S. Mortality following conjugal bereavement and the effects of a shared environment. Am J Epidemiol. 1995 Jun 15; 141(12):1142-52. PMID: 7771452.
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    94. Shafer FE, Dropulic B, Ely C, Schaefer CA, Freas D, Witkowska HE, Schechter AN, Noguchi CT, Dewey M, Karlsson S. Locus-Control-Region-Coupled Beta (S)(Antilles)- and Alpha(2)-Hemoglobin Genes Select for High Alpha(2)-Hemoglobin Expression in Adult Transgenic Mice. J Biomed Sci. 1994 Jun; 1(3):147-153. PMID: 11725018.
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