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Vincent Liu MD, MS

TitleResearch Scientist I
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
DepartmentDivision of Research
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-6899-9998 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    TitleRegional Director, Hospital Advanced Analytics, for The Permanente Medical Group
    InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
    DepartmentDivision of Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PABA05/1997Biochemistry
    New York University, New York, NYMD5/2002Medicine
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAMSc04/2010Health Services Research
    Stanford University, Stanford, CAMSc1/2016Biomedical Informatics

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Vincent Liu, MD, MS, is a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research. Dr. Liu is board certified in internal medicine, pulmonary disease, and critical care medicine. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Pennsylvania and his medical degree from New York University. He completed his residency training at New York University Hospitals (Bellevue) and a chief residency at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. He also completed a pulmonary and critical care medicine fellowship, as well as received a MS in health services research, at Stanford University. His research focuses on high-intensity medical care with a special interest in critical care research, advanced lung disease, and solid organ transplantation. He is interested in improving the long-term efficacy and efficiency of high-intensity care as well as understanding the intersection between hospital care and health information technology.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    F32HS019181     (LIU, VINCENT)Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2011
    AHRQ
    Patient safety and outcomes in sepsis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    K23GM112018     (LIU, VINCENT)Aug 6, 2014 - Jul 31, 2019
    NIH/NIGMS
    Data-driven Precision medicine in sepsis
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R35GM128672     (LIU, VINCENT)Aug 1, 2018 - Jul 31, 2023
    NIH/NIGMS
    Identifying pre-sepsis opportunities for early, targeted intervention
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Anesi GL, Liu VX, Gabler NB, Delgado MK, Kohn R, Weissman GE, Bayes B, Escobar GJ, Halpern SD. Associations of Intensive Care Unit Capacity Strain with Disposition and Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis Presenting to the Emergency Department. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Nov; 15(11):1328-1335. PMID: 30113865.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liu VX, Winthrop KL, Lu Y, Sharifi H, Nasiri HU, Ruoss SJ. Association between Inhaled Corticosteroid Use and Pulmonary Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Oct; 15(10):1169-1176. PMID: 30213194.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Walkey AJ, Shieh MS, Liu VX, Lindenauer PK. Mortality Measures to Profile Hospital Performance for Patients With Septic Shock. Crit Care Med. 2018 Aug; 46(8):1247-1254. PMID: 29727371.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Linnen DT, Kipnis P, Rondinelli J, Greene JD, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Risk Adjustment for Hospital Characteristics Reduces Unexplained Hospital Variation in Pressure Injury Risk. Nurs Res. 2018 Jul/Aug; 67(4):314-323. PMID: 29870519.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Liu VX. Toward the "Plateau of Productivity": Enhancing the Value of Machine Learning in Critical Care. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jul; 46(7):1196-1197. PMID: 29912104.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Schuler A, Wulf DA, Lu Y, Iwashyna TJ, Escobar GJ, Shah NH, Liu VX. The Impact of Acute Organ Dysfunction on Long-Term Survival in Sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jun; 46(6):843-849. PMID: 29432349.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Patel PB, Vinson DR, Gardner MN, Wulf DA, Kipnis P, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Impact of emergency physician-provided patient education about alternative care venues. Am J Manag Care. 2018 May; 24(5):225-231. PMID: 29851439.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Liu VX, Escobar GJ, Chaudhary R, Prescott HC. Healthcare Utilization and Infection in the Week Prior to Sepsis Hospitalization. Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr; 46(4):513-516. PMID: 29309371.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rondinelli J, Zuniga S, Kipnis P, Kawar LN, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury: Risk-Adjusted Comparisons in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System. Nurs Res. 2018 Jan/Feb; 67(1):16-25. PMID: 29240656.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Mayhew MB, Petersen BK, Sales AP, Greene JD, Liu VX, Wasson TS. Flexible, cluster-based analysis of the electronic medical record of sepsis with composite mixture models. J Biomed Inform. 2018 02; 78:33-42. PMID: 29196114.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Liu VX, Walkey AJ. Machine Learning and Sepsis: On the Road to Revolution. Crit Care Med. 2017 Nov; 45(11):1946-1947. PMID: 29028697.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Vranas KC, Jopling JK, Sweeney TE, Ramsey MC, Milstein AS, Slatore CG, Escobar GJ, Liu VX. Identifying Distinct Subgroups of ICU Patients: A Machine Learning Approach. Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct; 45(10):1607-1615. PMID: 28640021.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Liu VX, Fielding-Singh V, Greene JD, Baker JM, Iwashyna TJ, Bhattacharya J, Escobar GJ. The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 10 01; 196(7):856-863. PMID: 28345952.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Escobar GJ, Baker JM, Kipnis P, Greene JD, Mast TC, Gupta SB, Cossrow N, Mehta V, Liu V, Dubberke ER. Prediction of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Using Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 10; 38(10):1196-1203. PMID: 28835289.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Viglianti EM, Prescott HC, Liu V, Escobar GJ, Iwashyna TJ. Individual and health system variation in rehospitalizations the year after pneumonia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug; 96(31):e7695. PMID: 28767603.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Liu VX, Rosas E, Hwang J, Cain E, Foss-Durant A, Clopp M, Huang M, Lee DC, Mustille A, Kipnis P, Parodi S. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program Implementation in 2 Surgical Populations in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System. JAMA Surg. 2017 Jul 19; 152(7):e171032. PMID: 28492816.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Goodwin AJ, Liu V, Ford DW. Hospital Readmissions in Sepsis Survivors: Are They Preventable? Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2017 Feb; 14(2):170-171. PMID: 28146387.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Scruth EA, Oveisi N, Liu V. Innovation and Technology: Electronic Intensive Care Unit Diaries. AACN Adv Crit Care. 2017; 28(2):191-199. PMID: 28592479.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Escobar GJ, Baker JM, Turk BJ, Draper D, Liu V, Kipnis P. Comparing Hospital Processes and Outcomes in California Medicare Beneficiaries: Simulation Prompts Reconsideration. Perm J. 2017; 21. PMID: 29035176.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Liu VX, Rosas E, Hwang JC, Cain E, Foss-Durant A, Clopp M, Huang M, Mustille A, Reyes VM, Paulson SS, Caughey M, Parodi S. The Kaiser Permanente Northern California Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Program: Design, Development, and Implementation. Perm J. 2017; 21. PMID: 28746028.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Kerlin MP, Weissman GE, Wonneberger KA, Kent S, Madden V, Liu VX, Halpern SD. Validation of Administrative Definitions of Invasive Mechanical Ventilation across 30 Intensive Care Units. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 12 15; 194(12):1548-1552. PMID: 27976941.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Escobar GJ, Turk BJ, Ragins A, Ha J, Hoberman B, LeVine SM, Ballesca MA, Liu V, Kipnis P. Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S18-S24. PMID: 27805795.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Liu VX, Morehouse JW, Baker JM, Greene JD, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. Data that drive: Closing the loop in the learning hospital system. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S11-S17. PMID: 27805797.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Dummett BA, Adams C, Scruth E, Liu V, Guo M, Escobar GJ. Incorporating an Early Detection System Into Routine Clinical Practice in Two Community Hospitals. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S25-S31. PMID: 27805798.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Kuntz JL, Baker JM, Kipnis P, Li SX, Liu V, Xie Y, Marcella S, Escobar GJ. Utilization of Health Services Among Adults With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A 12-Year Population-Based Study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 01; 38(1):45-52. PMID: 27760583.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kipnis P, Turk BJ, Wulf DA, LaGuardia JC, Liu V, Churpek MM, Romero-Brufau S, Escobar GJ. Development and validation of an electronic medical record-based alert score for detection of inpatient deterioration outside the ICU. J Biomed Inform. 2016 12; 64:10-19. PMID: 27658885.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Sjoding MW, Liu VX. Can You Read Me Now? Unlocking Narrative Data with Natural Language Processing. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 09; 13(9):1443-5. PMID: 27627470.
      View in: PubMed
    28. LaHue SC, Liu VX. Loud and Clear: Sensory Impairment, Delirium, and Functional Recovery in Critical Illness. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 08 01; 194(3):252-3. PMID: 27479057; PMCID: PMC4970597 [Available on 08/01/17].
    29. Rogers AJ, Liu VX. 16 Years and Counting? Time to Implement Noninvasive Screening for ARDS. Chest. 2016 08; 150(2):266-7. PMID: 27502976.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Prescott HC, Calfee CS, Thompson BT, Angus DC, Liu VX. Toward Smarter Lumping and Smarter Splitting: Rethinking Strategies for Sepsis and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Clinical Trial Design. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 07 15; 194(2):147-55. PMID: 27244481.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Liu VX, Morehouse JW, Marelich GP, Soule J, Russell T, Skeath M, Adams C, Escobar GJ, Whippy A. Multicenter Implementation of a Treatment Bundle for Patients with Sepsis and Intermediate Lactate Values. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 06 01; 193(11):1264-70. PMID: 26695114.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Beg M, Scruth E, Liu V. Developing a framework for implementing intensive care unit diaries: a focused review of the literature. Aust Crit Care. 2016 Nov; 29(4):224-234. PMID: 27240937.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kim YS, Escobar GJ, Halpern SD, Greene JD, Kipnis P, Liu V. The Natural History of Changes in Preferences for Life-Sustaining Treatments and Implications for Inpatient Mortality in Younger and Older Hospitalized Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 05; 64(5):981-9. PMID: 27119583.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Amarasingham R, Audet AM, Bates DW, Glenn Cohen I, Entwistle M, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Etheredge L, Lo B, Ohno-Machado L, Ram S, Saria S, Schilling LM, Shahi A, Stewart WF, Steyerberg EW, Xie B. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges. EGEMS (Wash DC). 2016; 4(1):1163. PMID: 27141516.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Liu V. Keeping Score of Severity Scores: Taking the Next Step. Crit Care Med. 2016 Mar; 44(3):639-40. PMID: 26901551; PMCID: PMC4768296 [Available on 03/01/17].
    36. Liu V, Herbert D, Foss-Durant A, Marelich GP, Patel A, Whippy A, Turk BJ, Ragins AI, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. Evaluation Following Staggered Implementation of the "Rethinking Critical Care" ICU Care Bundle in a Multicenter Community Setting. Crit Care Med. 2016 Mar; 44(3):460-7. PMID: 26540402; PMCID: PMC4764399 [Available on 03/01/17].
    37. Seymour CW, Liu VX, Iwashyna TJ, Brunkhorst FM, Rea TD, Scherag A, Rubenfeld G, Kahn JM, Shankar-Hari M, Singer M, Deutschman CS, Escobar GJ, Angus DC. Assessment of Clinical Criteria for Sepsis: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23; 315(8):762-74. PMID: 26903335.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Shankar-Hari M, Phillips GS, Levy ML, Seymour CW, Liu VX, Deutschman CS, Angus DC, Rubenfeld GD, Singer M. Developing a New Definition and Assessing New Clinical Criteria for Septic Shock: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23; 315(8):775-87. PMID: 26903336.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Schuler A, Liu V, Wan J, Callahan A, Udell M, Stark DE, Shah NH. DISCOVERING PATIENT PHENOTYPES USING GENERALIZED LOW RANK MODELS. Pac Symp Biocomput. 2016; 21:144-55. PMID: 26776181; PMCID: PMC4836913.
    40. Beg M, Fisher S, Siu D, Rajan S, Troxell L, Liu VX. Treatment of Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome with and without Dexmedetomidine. Perm J. 2016; 20(2):49-53. PMID: 27168398; PMCID: PMC4867825.
    41. Kramer RD, Cooke CR, Liu V, Miller RR, Iwashyna TJ. Variation in the Contents of Sepsis Bundles and Quality Measures. A Systematic Review. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Nov; 12(11):1676-84. PMID: 26397842; PMCID: PMC4724896 [Available on 11/01/16].
    42. Escobar GJ, Ragins A, Scheirer P, Liu V, Robles J, Kipnis P. Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality: Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time. Med Care. 2015 Nov; 53(11):916-23. PMID: 26465120; PMCID: PMC4605276.
    43. Li R, Buras E, Lee J, Liu R, Liu V, Espiritu C, Ozer K, Thompson B, Nally L, Yuan G, Oka K, Chang B, Samson S, Yechoor V, Chan L. Gene therapy with neurogenin3, betacellulin and SOCS1 reverses diabetes in NOD mice. Gene Ther. 2015 Nov; 22(11):876-82. PMID: 26172077; PMCID: PMC4636470.
    44. Vinson DR, Morley JE, Huang J, Liu V, Anderson ML, Drenten CE, Radecki RP, Nishijima DK, Reed ME. The Accuracy of an Electronic Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index Auto-Populated from the Electronic Health Record: Setting the stage for computerized clinical decision support. Appl Clin Inform. 2015; 6(2):318-33. PMID: 26171078; PMCID: PMC4493333.
    45. Vinson DR, Drenten CE, Huang J, Morley JE, Anderson ML, Reed ME, Nishijima DK, Liu V. Impact of relative contraindications to home management in emergency department patients with low-risk pulmonary embolism. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 May; 12(5):666-73. PMID: 25695933; PMCID: PMC4743639.
    46. Liu V, Musen MA, Chou T. Data breaches of protected health information in the United States. JAMA. 2015 Apr 14; 313(14):1471-3. PMID: 25871675; PMCID: PMC4479128.
    47. Mark DG, Morehouse JW, Hung YY, Kene MV, Elms AR, Liu V, Ballard DW, Vinson DR. In-hospital mortality following treatment with red blood cell transfusion or inotropic therapy during early goal-directed therapy for septic shock: a retrospective propensity-adjusted analysis. Crit Care. 2014 Sep 12; 18(5):496. PMID: 25212411; PMCID: PMC4181703.
    48. Iwashyna TJ, Liu V. What's so different about big data?. A primer for clinicians trained to think epidemiologically. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Sep; 11(7):1130-5. PMID: 25102315; PMCID: PMC4214055.
    49. Roubinian NH, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Swain BE, Gardner MN, Kipnis P, Triulzi DJ, Gottschall JL, Wu Y, Carson JL, Kleinman SH, Murphy EL. Trends in red blood cell transfusion and 30-day mortality among hospitalized patients. Transfusion. 2014 Oct; 54(10 Pt 2):2678-86. PMID: 25135770; PMCID: PMC4197097.
    50. Liu V, Whippy A, Morehouse JW. Decreasing sepsis mortality at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. Am J Emerg Med. 2015 Sep; 33(9):1305-6. PMID: 26194399.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Roubinian NH, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Gardner MN, Carson JL, Kleinman SH, Murphy EL. Decreased red blood cell use and mortality in hospitalized patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug; 174(8):1405-7. PMID: 24978650; PMCID: PMC4445732.
    52. Liu V, Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Soule J, Whippy A, Angus DC, Iwashyna TJ. Hospital deaths in patients with sepsis from 2 independent cohorts. JAMA. 2014 Jul 02; 312(1):90-2. PMID: 24838355.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Prescott HC, Langa KM, Liu V, Escobar GJ, Iwashyna TJ. Increased 1-year healthcare use in survivors of severe sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul 01; 190(1):62-9. PMID: 24872085; PMCID: PMC4226030.
    54. Liu V. Only time will tell. Data-driven approaches to phenotyping critical illness. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Jun; 11(5):795-6. PMID: 24936692.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Roubinian NH, Murphy EL, Swain BE, Gardner MN, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 May 10; 14:213. PMID: 24884605; PMCID: PMC4101854.
    56. Liu V, Lei X, Prescott HC, Kipnis P, Iwashyna TJ, Escobar GJ. Hospital readmission and healthcare utilization following sepsis in community settings. J Hosp Med. 2014 Aug; 9(8):502-7. PMID: 24700730; PMCID: PMC4241549.
    57. Kipnis P, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration. Med Care. 2014 Apr; 52(4):378-84. PMID: 24848209.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Liu V, Morehouse JW, Soule J, Whippy A, Escobar GJ. Fluid volume, lactate values, and mortality in sepsis patients with intermediate lactate values. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Oct; 10(5):466-73. PMID: 24004068.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Liu V, Clark MP, Mendoza M, Saket R, Gardner MN, Turk BJ, Escobar GJ. Automated identification of pneumonia in chest radiograph reports in critically ill patients. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013 Aug 15; 13:90. PMID: 23947340; PMCID: PMC3765332.
    60. Liu V, Read JL, Scruth E, Cheng E. Visitation policies and practices in US ICUs. Crit Care. 2013 Apr 16; 17(2):R71. PMID: 23591058; PMCID: PMC4056772.
    61. Liu V, Turk BJ, Ragins AI, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. An electronic Simplified Acute Physiology Score-based risk adjustment score for critical illness in an integrated healthcare system. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1):41-8. PMID: 23222263.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Delgado MK, Liu V, Pines JM, Kipnis P, Gardner MN, Escobar GJ. Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system. J Hosp Med. 2013 Jan; 8(1):13-9. PMID: 23024040.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Hsu JL, Liu V, Patterson AJ, Martin GS, Nicolls MR, Russell JA. Potential for overuse of corticosteroids and vasopressin in septic shock. Crit Care. 2012 Sep 06; 16(5):447. PMID: 23102413; PMCID: PMC3682243.
    64. Liu V, Turk BJ, Rizk NW, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. The association between sepsis and potential medical injury among hospitalized patients. Chest. 2012 Sep; 142(3):606-613. PMID: 22383667.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Liu V, Kipnis P, Rizk NW, Escobar GJ. Adverse outcomes associated with delayed intensive care unit transfers in an integrated healthcare system. J Hosp Med. 2012 Mar; 7(3):224-30. PMID: 22038879.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Chooljian DM, Liu V. Benefit or burden? Sending patients with nonresectable lung cancer to the ICU. Chest. 2011 Aug; 140(2):558. PMID: 21813540.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Liu V, Bhattacharya J, Weill D, Hlatky MA. Persistent racial disparities in survival after heart transplantation. Circulation. 2011 Apr 19; 123(15):1642-9. PMID: 21464049; PMCID: PMC3125110.
    68. Liu V, Weill D, Bhattacharya J. Racial disparities in survival after lung transplantation. Arch Surg. 2011 Mar; 146(3):286-93. PMID: 21422359.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Liu V, Kipnis P, Gould MK, Escobar GJ. Length of stay predictions: improvements through the use of automated laboratory and comorbidity variables. Med Care. 2010 Aug; 48(8):739-44. PMID: 20613662.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Liu V, Zamora MR, Dhillon GS, Weill D. Increasing lung allocation scores predict worsened survival among lung transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2010 Apr; 10(4):915-20. PMID: 20121747; PMCID: PMC2860663.
    71. Liu V, Dhillon GS, Weill D. A multi-drug regimen for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus infections in adult lung and heart-lung transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2010 Feb; 12(1):38-44. PMID: 19761558.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Liu H, Bravata DM, Olkin I, Friedlander A, Liu V, Roberts B, Bendavid E, Saynina O, Salpeter SR, Garber AM, Hoffman AR. Systematic review: the effects of growth hormone on athletic performance. Ann Intern Med. 2008 May 20; 148(10):747-58. PMID: 18347346.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Liu V, White DA, Zakowski MF, Travis W, Kris MG, Ginsberg MS, Miller VA, Azzoli CG. Pulmonary toxicity associated with erlotinib. Chest. 2007 Sep; 132(3):1042-4. PMID: 17873198.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Rothschild JM, Fang E, Liu V, Litvak I, Yoon C, Bates DW. Use and perceived benefits of handheld computer-based clinical references. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2006 Nov-Dec; 13(6):619-26. PMID: 16929041; PMCID: PMC1656968.
    75. Rothschild JM, Fang E, Gottschall J, Liu V, Bates DW. Use and perceived benefits of handheld PDA clinical reference applications. AMIA Annu Symp Proc. 2005; 1099. PMID: 16779386; PMCID: PMC1560712.
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