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Stanley Xu, PhD, MS

TitleSenior Investigator
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Southern California
DepartmentDepartment of Research and Evaluation
Address100 South Los Robles Avenue
Pasadena CA 91101
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-4750-7672 Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Stanley Xu, PhD, is the Head of Biostatistics and a Senior Investigator at the Institute for Health Research. His research areas include longitudinal data analysis, analytic strategies in observational studies, count data analysis, missing data, outcome misclassification, and survival analysis.

    Dr. Xu has completed doctoral training in both biochemistry and biometrics at the Beijing Agricultural University and the University of Colorado, Denver, respectively. He is responsible for developing analytic strategies for a variety of research problems in health outcomes and health services research and oversees the work of analytic staff within the IHR. He has contributed to several scientific fields including vaccine safety, substance abuse, cardiac outcomes, pharmacoepidemiology, health care utilization, and mental health.

    Dr. Xu is an Adjunct Professor in the Department of Biostatistics and Informatics at the University of Colorado School of Public Health and is a peer reviewer for a number of journals, including Statistics in Medicine, Biometrical Journal, Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, and Vaccine.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    1UL1TR002535-01     (Sokol)Apr 30, 2018 - Apr 30, 2023
    NCRR
    Colorado Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute (CCTSI)
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    1R01DA042259-02     (Binswanger)Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    NIH/NIDA
    The Safety and Impact of Expanded Access to Naloxone in HIV and Primary Care Practices
    Role: Biostatistician

    15SFDRN25710168     (Steiner)Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2020
    AHA
    Improving Hypertension Care of American Indians and Alaska Natives through Interactive Voice Response Technology
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    1R01HL126125-01A1     (Bender)Sep 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2020
    NIH/NHLBI
    The Breathewell Program to Improve Outcomes
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Klein NP, Lewis N, Goddard K, Fireman B, Zerbo O, Hanson KE, Donahue JG, Kharbanda EO, Naleway A, Nelson JC, Xu S, Yih WK, Glanz JM, Williams JTB, Hambidge SJ, Lewin BJ, Shimabukuro TT, DeStefano F, Weintraub ES. Surveillance for Adverse Events After COVID-19 mRNA Vaccination. JAMA. 2021 Sep 03. PMID: 34477808.
      Citations:    
    2. Qian L, Sy LS, Hong V, Glenn SC, Ryan DS, Morrissette K, Jacobsen SJ, Xu S. Disparities in Outpatient and Telehealth Visits During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Large Integrated Health Care Organization: Retrospective Cohort Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021 09 01; 23(9):e29959. PMID: 34351865.
      Citations:    
    3. Xu S, Clarke CL, Newcomer SR, Daley MF, Glanz JM. Sensitivity analyses of unmeasured and partially-measured confounders using multiple imputation in a vaccine safety study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2021 Sep; 30(9):1200-1213. PMID: 33988275.
      Citations:    
    4. Xu S, Glenn S, Sy L, Qian L, Hong V, Ryan DS, Jacobsen S. Correction: Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Utilization in a Large Integrated Health Care System: Retrospective Cohort Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021 May 05; 23(5):e30101. PMID: 33950848; PMCID: PMC8135025.
      Citations:    
    5. Xu S, Glenn S, Sy L, Qian L, Hong V, Ryan DS, Jacobsen S. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Health Care Utilization in a Large Integrated Health Care System: Retrospective Cohort Study. J Med Internet Res. 2021 04 29; 23(4):e26558. PMID: 33882020; PMCID: PMC8086778.
      Citations:    
    6. Xu S, Goodrich GK, Moore KR, Manson SM, Gottlieb LM, Hessler D, Schroeder EB, Steiner JF. Identifying Relative Changes in Social Risk Factors: An Analytic Approach. Med Care. 2021 02 01; 59(2):e9-e15. PMID: 33165148.
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    7. Binswanger IA, Glanz JM, Faul M, Shoup JA, Quintana LM, Lyden J, Xu S, Narwaney KJ. The Association between Opioid Discontinuation and Heroin Use: A Nested Case-Control Study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2020 12 01; 217:108248. PMID: 32927194.
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    8. Schroeder EB, Moore KR, Manson SM, Baldwin MA, Goodrich GK, Malone AS, Pieper LE, Xu S, Fort MP, Son-Stone L, Johnson D, Steiner JF. A randomized clinical trial of an interactive voice response and text message intervention for individuals with hypertension. J Clin Hypertens (Greenwich). 2020 07; 22(7):1228-1238. PMID: 32516486.
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    9. Binswanger IA, Nguyen AP, Morenoff JD, Xu S, Harding DJ. The association of criminal justice supervision setting with overdose mortality: a longitudinal cohort study. Addiction. 2020 12; 115(12):2329-2338. PMID: 32267585; PMCID: PMC7541650.
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    10. Glanz JM, Clarke CL, Xu S, Daley MF, Shoup JA, Schroeder EB, Lewin BJ, McClure DL, Kharbanda E, Klein NP, DeStefano F. Association Between Rotavirus Vaccination and Type 1 Diabetes in Children. JAMA Pediatr. 2020 05 01; 174(5):455-462. PMID: 32150236; PMCID: PMC7063538.
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    11. Bender BG, Wagner NM, Shoup JA, Goodrich GK, Shetterly SM, Cvietusa PJ, Anderson CB, Xu S, Ritzwoller DP, Tacinas C, King DK, Raebel MA. Adults With Asthma Experience No Increase in Asthma-related Exacerbations When Digital Communication Technology Tools Are Employed to Offset Provider Workload: A Pragmatic Randomized Trial. Med Care. 2020 04; 58(4):352-359. PMID: 32197029.
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    12. Morse EF, Ross C, Clemensen S, Babbar S, Wisneski LA, Clune H, de Picciotto M, Xu S, Binswanger I. Exploring the Use of Complementary and Integrative Health Modalities in Urgent Care for Acute Pain. J Altern Complement Med. 2020 Jun; 26(6):537-540. PMID: 32167802.
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    13. Newcomer SR, Daley MF, Narwaney KJ, Xu S, DeStefano F, Groom HC, Jackson ML, Lewin BJ, McLean HQ, Nordin JD, Zerbo O, Glanz JM. Order of Live and Inactivated Vaccines and Risk of Non-vaccine-targeted Infections in US Children 11-23 Months of Age. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2020 03; 39(3):247-253. PMID: 32032310.
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    14. Newcomer SR, Xu S, Kulldorff M, Daley MF, Fireman B, Glanz JM. A primer on quantitative bias analysis with positive predictive values in research using electronic health data. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2019 12 01; 26(12):1664-1674. PMID: 31365086; PMCID: PMC6857512.
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    15. Glanz JM, Binswanger IA, Shetterly SM, Narwaney KJ, Xu S. Association Between Opioid Dose Variability and Opioid Overdose Among Adults Prescribed Long-term Opioid Therapy. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Apr 05; 2(4):e192613. PMID: 31002325.
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    16. Schroeder EB, Moore K, Manson SM, Baldwin MA, Goodrich GK, Malone AS, Pieper LE, Xu S, Fort MM, Johnson D, Son-Stone L, Steiner JF. An Interactive Voice Response and Text Message Intervention to Improve Blood Pressure Control Among Individuals With Hypertension Receiving Care at an Urban Indian Health Organization: Protocol and Baseline Characteristics of a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR Res Protoc. 2019 Apr 02; 8(4):e11794. PMID: 30938688.
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    17. Xu S, Newcomer SR, Kulldorff M, Daley MF, Fireman B, Glanz JM. Use of three summary measures of pediatric vaccination for studying the safety of the childhood immunization schedule. Vaccine. 2019 Feb 28; 37(10):1325-1331. PMID: 30709727.
      Citations:    
    18. Davidson AJ, Xu S, Oronce CIA, Durfee MJ, McCormick EV, Steiner JF, Havranek E, Beck A. Monitoring Depression Rates in an Urban Community: Use of Electronic Health Records. J Public Health Manag Pract. 2018 Nov/Dec; 24(6):E6-E14. PMID: 29334514.
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    19. Steiner JF, Shainline MR, Dahlgren JZ, Kroll A, Xu S. Optimizing number and timing of appointment reminders: a randomized trial. Am J Manag Care. 2018 Aug; 24(8):377-384. PMID: 30130032.
      Citations:    
    20. Xu S, Clarke CL, Newcomer SR, Daley MF, Glanz JM. Analyzing self-controlled case series data when case confirmation rates are estimated from an internal validation sample. Biom J. 2018 07; 60(4):748-760. PMID: 29768667.
      Citations:    
    21. Li R, Weintraub E, McNeil MM, Kulldorff M, Lewis EM, Nelson J, Xu S, Qian L, Klein NP, Destefano F. Meningococcal conjugate vaccine safety surveillance in the Vaccine Safety Datalink using a tree-temporal scan data mining method. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2018 Apr; 27(4):391-397. PMID: 29446176.
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    22. Glanz JM, Narwaney KJ, Mueller SR, Gardner EM, Calcaterra SL, Xu S, Breslin K, Binswanger IA. Prediction Model for Two-Year Risk of Opioid Overdose Among Patients Prescribed Chronic Opioid Therapy. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Oct; 33(10):1646-1653. PMID: 29380216.
      Citations:    
    23. Newcomer SR, Kulldorff M, Xu S, Daley MF, Fireman B, Lewis E, Glanz JM. Bias from outcome misclassification in immunization schedule safety research. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2018 Feb; 27(2):221-228. PMID: 29292551.
      Citations:    
    24. Beck A, Davidson AJ, Xu S, Josh Durfee M, Oronce CIA, Steiner JF, Havranek E. A Multilevel Analysis of Individual, Health System, and Neighborhood Factors Associated with Depression within a Large Metropolitan Area. J Urban Health. 2017 Dec; 94(6):780-790. PMID: 28842803.
      Citations:    
    25. Daley MF, Clarke CL, Glanz JM, Xu S, Hambidge SJ, Donahue JG, Nordin JD, Klein NP, Jacobsen SJ, Naleway AL, Jackson ML, Lee G, Duffy J, Weintraub E. The safety of live attenuated influenza vaccine in children and adolescents 2 through 17 years of age: A Vaccine Safety Datalink study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2018 Jan; 27(1):59-68. PMID: 29148124.
      Citations:    
    26. Glanz JM, Wagner NM, Narwaney KJ, Kraus CR, Shoup JA, Xu S, O'Leary ST, Omer SB, Gleason KS, Daley MF. Web-based Social Media Intervention to Increase Vaccine Acceptance: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Pediatrics. 2017 Dec; 140(6). PMID: 29109107.
      Citations:    
    27. Schroeder EB, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Nichols GA, O'Connor PJ, Steiner JF. Predicting the 6-month risk of severe hypoglycemia among adults with diabetes: Development and external validation of a prediction model. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Jul; 31(7):1158-1163. PMID: 28462891.
      Citations:    
    28. Allen LA, Matlock DD, Shetterly SM, Xu S, Levy WC, Portalupi LB, McIlvennan CK, Gurwitz JH, Johnson ES, Smith DH, Magid DJ. Use of Risk Models to Predict Death in the Next Year Among Individual Ambulatory Patients With Heart Failure. JAMA Cardiol. 2017 Apr 01; 2(4):435-441. PMID: 28002546.
      Citations:    
    29. Raebel MA, Zeng C, Cheetham TC, Smith DH, Feigelson HS, Carroll NM, Goddard K, Tavel HM, Boudreau DM, Shetterly S, Xu S. Risk of Breast Cancer With Long-Term Use of Calcium Channel Blockers or Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors Among Older Women. Am J Epidemiol. 2017 02 15; 185(4):264-273. PMID: 28186527.
      Citations:    
    30. Vazquez-Benitez G, Kharbanda EO, Naleway AL, Lipkind H, Sukumaran L, McCarthy NL, Omer SB, Qian L, Xu S, Jackson ML, Vijayadev V, Klein NP, Nordin JD. Risk of Preterm or Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth After Influenza Vaccination During Pregnancy: Caveats When Conducting Retrospective Observational Studies. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 08 01; 184(3):176-86. PMID: 27449414.
      Citations:    
    31. Steiner JF, Shainline MR, Bishop MC, Xu S. Reducing Missed Primary Care Appointments in a Learning Health System: Two Randomized Trials and Validation of a Predictive Model. Med Care. 2016 Jul; 54(7):689-96. PMID: 27077277.
      Citations:    
    32. Xu S, Shetterly S, Cook AJ, Raebel MA, Goonesekera S, Shoaibi A, Roy J, Fireman B. Evaluation of propensity scores, disease risk scores, and regression in confounder adjustment for the safety of emerging treatment with group sequential monitoring. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2016 Apr; 25(4):453-61. PMID: 26875591.
      Citations:    
    33. Illingworth JL, Watson P, Xu S, Manford M, Ring H. A method for identifying associations between seizures and possible trigger events in adults with intellectual disability. Epilepsia. 2015 Nov; 56(11):1812-8. PMID: 26385590.
      Citations:    
    34. Desai JR, Vazquez-Benitez G, Xu Z, Schroeder EB, Karter AJ, Steiner JF, Nichols GA, Reynolds K, Xu S, Newton K, Pathak RD, Waitzfelder B, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Kirchner HL, Thomas A, O'Connor PJ. Who Must We Target Now to Minimize Future Cardiovascular Events and Total Mortality?: Lessons From the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Cohort Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Sep; 8(5):508-16. PMID: 26307132.
      Citations:    
    35. Almeida FA, Smith-Ray RL, Dzewaltowski DA, Glasgow RE, Lee RE, Thomas DS, Xu S, Estabrooks PA. An Interactive Computer Session to Initiate Physical Activity in Sedentary Cardiac Patients: Randomized Controlled Trial. J Med Internet Res. 2015 Aug 24; 17(8):e206. PMID: 26303347; PMCID: PMC4642390.
      Citations:    
    36. Schroeder EB, Powers JD, O'Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Xu S, Desai JR, Karter AJ, Morales LS, Newton KM, Pathak RD, Vazquez-Benitez G, Raebel MA, Butler MG, Lafata JE, Reynolds K, Thomas A, Waitzfelder BE, Steiner JF. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among individuals with diabetes in the SUPREME-DM Project, 2005-2011. J Diabetes Complications. 2015 Jul; 29(5):637-43. PMID: 25936953.
      Citations:    
    37. Bender BG, Cvietusa PJ, Goodrich GK, Lowe R, Nuanes HA, Rand C, Shetterly S, Tacinas C, Vollmer WM, Wagner N, Wamboldt FS, Xu S, Magid DJ. Pragmatic trial of health care technologies to improve adherence to pediatric asthma treatment: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatr. 2015 Apr; 169(4):317-23. PMID: 25664620.
      Citations:    
    38. Vazquez-Benitez G, Desai JR, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Nichols GA, Segal J, Butler MG, Karter AJ, Steiner JF, Newton KM, Morales LS, Pathak RD, Thomas A, Reynolds K, Kirchner HL, Waitzfelder B, Elston Lafata J, Adibhatla R, Xu Z, O'Connor PJ. Preventable major cardiovascular events associated with uncontrolled glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and active smoking in adults with diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease: a contemporary analysis. Diabetes Care. 2015 May; 38(5):905-12. PMID: 25710922.
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    39. Rost KM, Meng H, Xu S. Work productivity loss from depression: evidence from an employer survey. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Dec 18; 14:597. PMID: 25519705.
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    40. Nichols GA, Schroeder EB, Karter AJ, Gregg EW, Desai J, Lawrence JM, O'Connor PJ, Xu S, Newton KM, Raebel MA, Pathak RD, Waitzfelder B, Segal J, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Kirchner HL, Thomas A, Steiner JF. Trends in diabetes incidence among 7 million insured adults, 2006-2011: the SUPREME-DM project. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 01; 181(1):32-9. PMID: 25515167.
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    41. Rost KM, Marshall D, Xu S. Intervention impact on depression product appraisal and purchasing behavior by employers: a randomized trial. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 Sep 24; 14:426. PMID: 25248854.
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    42. Schmittdiel JA, Raebel MA, Dyer W, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Segal JB, O' Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Kirchner HL, Karter AJ, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Steiner JF. Prescription medication burden in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: a SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014 Jul-Aug; 54(4):374-82. PMID: 24860866.
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    43. Hambidge SJ, Newcomer SR, Narwaney KJ, Glanz JM, Daley MF, Xu S, Shoup JA, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Klein NP, Lee GM, Nelson JC, Lugg M, Naleway AL, Nordin JD, Weintraub E, DeStefano F. Timely versus delayed early childhood vaccination and seizures. Pediatrics. 2014 Jun; 133(6):e1492-9. PMID: 24843064.
      Citations:    
    44. Hazlehurst BL, Lawrence JM, Donahoo WT, Sherwood NE, Kurtz SE, Xu S, Steiner JF. Automating assessment of lifestyle counseling in electronic health records. Am J Prev Med. 2014 May; 46(5):457-64. PMID: 24745635.
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    45. Raebel MA, Ellis JL, Schroeder EB, Xu S, O'Connor PJ, Segal JB, Butler MG, Schmittdiel JA, Kirchner HL, Goodrich GK, Lawrence JM, Nichols GA, Newton KM, Pathak RD, Steiner JF. Intensification of antihyperglycemic therapy among patients with incident diabetes: a Surveillance Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jul; 23(7):699-710. PMID: 24639086.
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    46. Xu S, Shetterly S, Raebel MA, Ho PM, Tsai TT, Magid D. Estimating the effects of time-varying exposures in observational studies using Cox models with stabilized weights adjustment. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Aug; 23(8):812-8. PMID: 24596337.
      Citations:    
    47. Xu S, Newcomer S, Nelson J, Qian L, McClure D, Pan Y, Zeng C, Glanz J. Signal detection of adverse events with imperfect confirmation rates in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design. Biom J. 2014 May; 56(3):513-25. PMID: 24402780.
      Citations:    
    48. Raebel MA, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Schmittdiel JA, Segal JB, O'Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Kirchner HL, Elston Lafata J, Butler M, Newton KM, Steiner JF. Initial antihyperglycemic drug therapy among 241 327 adults with newly identified diabetes from 2005 through 2010: a surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Oct; 47(10):1280-91. PMID: 24259692.
      Citations:    
    49. Zeng C, Newcomer SR, Glanz JM, Shoup JA, Daley MF, Hambidge SJ, Xu S. Bias correction of risk estimates in vaccine safety studies with rare adverse events using a self-controlled case series design. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Dec 15; 178(12):1750-9. PMID: 24327463.
      Citations:    
    50. Matlock DD, Groeneveld PW, Sidney S, Shetterly S, Goodrich G, Glenn K, Xu S, Yang L, Farmer SA, Reynolds K, Cassidy-Bushrow AE, Lieu T, Boudreau DM, Greenlee RT, Tom J, Vupputuri S, Adams KF, Smith DH, Gunter MJ, Go AS, Magid DJ. Geographic variation in cardiovascular procedure use among Medicare fee-for-service vs Medicare Advantage beneficiaries. JAMA. 2013 Jul 10; 310(2):155-62. PMID: 23839749.
      Citations:    
    51. Glanz JM, Newcomer SR, Narwaney KJ, Hambidge SJ, Daley MF, Wagner NM, McClure DL, Xu S, Rowhani-Rahbar A, Lee GM, Nelson JC, Donahue JG, Naleway AL, Nordin JD, Lugg MM, Weintraub ES. A population-based cohort study of undervaccination in 8 managed care organizations across the United States. JAMA Pediatr. 2013 Mar 01; 167(3):274-81. PMID: 23338829.
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    52. Xu S, Hambidge SJ, McClure DL, Daley MF, Glanz JM. A scan statistic for identifying optimal risk windows in vaccine safety studies using self-controlled case series design. Stat Med. 2013 Aug 30; 32(19):3290-9. PMID: 23303643.
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    53. Palen TE, Ross C, Powers JD, Xu S. Association of online patient access to clinicians and medical records with use of clinical services. JAMA. 2012 Nov 21; 308(19):2012-9. PMID: 23168824.
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    54. McClure DL, Xu S, Weintraub E, Glanz JM. An efficient statistical algorithm for a temporal scan statistic applied to vaccine safety analyses. Vaccine. 2012 Jun 08; 30(27):3986-91. PMID: 22531555.
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    55. Xu S, Zeng C, Newcomer S, Nelson J, Glanz J. Use of Fixed Effects Models to Analyze Self-Controlled Case Series Data in Vaccine Safety Studies. J Biom Biostat. 2012 Apr 19; Suppl 7:006. PMID: 24707443.
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    56. Ray CE, Battaglia C, Libby AM, Prochazka A, Xu S, Funaki B. Interventional radiologic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma-a cost analysis from the payer perspective. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2012 Mar; 23(3):306-14. PMID: 22277271.
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    57. Hambidge SJ, Ross C, Glanz J, McClure D, Daley MF, Xu S, Shoup JA, Narwaney K, Baggs J, Weintraub E. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine is not associated with sickle cell crises in children. Pediatrics. 2012 Jan; 129(1):e54-9. PMID: 22157132.
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    58. Xu S, Shetterly S, Powers D, Raebel MA, Tsai TT, Ho PM, Magid D. Extension of Kaplan-Meier methods in observational studies with time-varying treatment. Value Health. 2012 Jan; 15(1):167-74. PMID: 22264985.
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    59. Raebel MA, Ellis JL, Carroll NM, Bayliss EA, McGinnis B, Schroeder EB, Shetterly S, Xu S, Steiner JF. Characteristics of patients with primary non-adherence to medications for hypertension, diabetes, and lipid disorders. J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Jan; 27(1):57-64. PMID: 21879374.
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    60. Glanz JM, Newcomer SR, Hambidge SJ, Daley MF, Narwaney KJ, Xu S, Lee GM, Baggs J, Klein NP, Nordin JD, Naleway AL, Belongia EA, Weintraub ES. Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children aged 24 to 59 months in the vaccine safety datalink. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug; 165(8):749-55. PMID: 21810637.
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    61. Rost K, Hsieh YP, Xu S, Menachemi N, Young AS. Potential disparities in the management of schizophrenia in the United States. Psychiatr Serv. 2011 Jun; 62(6):613-8. PMID: 21632729.
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    62. Rost K, Hsieh YP, Xu S, Harman J. Gender differences in hospitalization after emergency room visits for depressive symptoms. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2011 May; 20(5):719-24. PMID: 21417934.
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    63. Estabrooks PA, Glasgow RE, Xu S, Dzewaltowski DA, Lee RE, Thomas D, Almeida FA, Thayer AN, Smith-Ray RL. Building a multiple modality, theory-based physical activity intervention: The development of CardiACTION! Psychol Sport Exerc. 2011 Jan 01; 12(1):46-53. PMID: 22473308.
      Citations:    
    64. Xu S, Zhang L, Nelson JC, Zeng C, Mullooly J, McClure D, Glanz J. Identifying optimal risk windows for self-controlled case series studies of vaccine safety. Stat Med. 2011 Mar 30; 30(7):742-52. PMID: 21394750.
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    65. Raebel MA, Smith ML, Saylor G, Wright LA, Cheetham C, Blanchette CM, Xu S. The positive predictive value of a hyperkalemia diagnosis in automated health care data. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Nov; 19(11):1204-8. PMID: 20878650.
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    66. Tsai TT, Ho PM, Xu S, Powers JD, Carroll NM, Shetterly SM, Maddox TM, Rumsfeld JS, Margolis K, Go AS, Magid DJ. Increased risk of bleeding in patients on clopidogrel therapy after drug-eluting stents implantation: insights from the HMO Research Network-Stent Registry (HMORN-stent). Circ Cardiovasc Interv. 2010 Jun 01; 3(3):230-5. PMID: 20442361.
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    67. Raebel MA, Ross C, Xu S, Roblin DW, Cheetham C, Blanchette CM, Saylor G, Smith DH. Diabetes and drug-associated hyperkalemia: effect of potassium monitoring. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 Apr; 25(4):326-33. PMID: 20087674.
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    68. Xu S, Rost K, Dong F, Dickinson LM. Stakeholder benefit from depression disease management: differences by rurality? J Behav Health Serv Res. 2011 Jan; 38(1):114-21. PMID: 20052619.
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    69. Raebel MA, Ross C, Cheetham C, Petersen H, Saylor G, Smith DH, Wright LA, Roblin DW, Xu S. Increasingly restrictive definitions of hyperkalemia outcomes in a database study: effect on incidence estimates. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2010 Jan; 19(1):19-25. PMID: 19937982.
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    70. Fortney JC, Harman JS, Xu S, Dong F. The association between rural residence and the use, type, and quality of depression care. J Rural Health. 2010; 26(3):205-13. PMID: 20633088.
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    71. Xu S, Ross C, Raebel MA, Shetterly S, Blanchette C, Smith D. Use of stabilized inverse propensity scores as weights to directly estimate relative risk and its confidence intervals. Value Health. 2010 Mar-Apr; 13(2):273-7. PMID: 19912596.
      Citations:    
    72. Fortney JC, Xu S, Dong F. Community-level correlates of hospitalizations for persons with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 2009 Jun; 60(6):772-8. PMID: 19487346.
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    73. Estabrooks PA, Shoup JA, Gattshall M, Dandamudi P, Shetterly S, Xu S. Automated telephone counseling for parents of overweight children: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2009 Jan; 36(1):35-42. PMID: 19095163.
      Citations:    
    74. McClure DL, Glanz JM, Xu S, Hambidge SJ, Mullooly JP, Baggs J. Comparison of epidemiologic methods for active surveillance of vaccine safety. Vaccine. 2008 Jun 19; 26(26):3341-5. PMID: 18462849.
      Citations:    
    75. Glanz J, France E, Xu S, Hayes T, Hambidge S. A population-based, multisite cohort study of the predictors of chronic idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in children. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):e506-12. PMID: 18310170.
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    76. France EK, Glanz J, Xu S, Hambidge S, Yamasaki K, Black SB, Marcy M, Mullooly JP, Jackson LA, Nordin J, Belongia EA, Hohman K, Chen RT, Davis R. Risk of immune thrombocytopenic purpura after measles-mumps-rubella immunization in children. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):e687-92. PMID: 18310189.
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    77. Xu S, Jones RH, Grunwald GK. Analysis of longitudinal count data with serial correlation. Biom J. 2007 Jun; 49(3):416-28. PMID: 17623346.
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    78. Sills MR, Shetterly S, Xu S, Magid D, Kempe A. Association between parental depression and children's health care use. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4):e829-36. PMID: 17403826.
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    79. Graham A, Goss C, Xu S, Magid DJ, DiGuiseppi C. Effect of using different modes to administer the AUDIT-C on identification of hazardous drinking and acquiescence to trial participation among injured patients. Alcohol Alcohol. 2007 Sep-Oct; 42(5):423-9. PMID: 17341515.
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    80. France EK, Smith-Ray R, McClure D, Hambidge S, Xu S, Yamasaki K, Shay D, Weintraub E, Fry AM, Black SB, Shinefield HR, Mullooly JP, Jackson LA. Impact of maternal influenza vaccination during pregnancy on the incidence of acute respiratory illness visits among infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006 Dec; 160(12):1277-83. PMID: 17146026.
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    81. Hambidge SJ, Glanz JM, France EK, McClure D, Xu S, Yamasaki K, Jackson L, Mullooly JP, Zangwill KM, Marcy SM, Black SB, Lewis EM, Shinefield HR, Belongia E, Nordin J, Chen RT, Shay DK, Davis RL, DeStefano F. Safety of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine in children 6 to 23 months old. JAMA. 2006 Oct 25; 296(16):1990-7. PMID: 17062862.
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    82. Glanz JM, McClure DL, Xu S, Hambidge SJ, Lee M, Kolczak MS, Kleinman K, Mullooly JP, France EK. Four different study designs to evaluate vaccine safety were equally validated with contrasting limitations. J Clin Epidemiol. 2006 Aug; 59(8):808-18. PMID: 16828674.
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    83. Lin ND, Kleinman K, Chan KA, Yu XJ, France EK, Xu S, Wei F, Mullooly J, Santoli J, Lieu TA. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants. BMC Pediatr. 2005 Nov 28; 5:43. PMID: 16313673.
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    84. Estabrooks PA, Nelson CC, Xu S, King D, Bayliss EA, Gaglio B, Nutting PA, Glasgow RE. The frequency and behavioral outcomes of goal choices in the self-management of diabetes. Diabetes Educ. 2005 May-Jun; 31(3):391-400. PMID: 15919639.
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    85. Price DW, Xu S, McClure D. Effect of CME on primary care and OB/GYN treatment of breast masses. J Contin Educ Health Prof. 2005; 25(4):240-7. PMID: 16365900.
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    87. Raebel MA, Malone DC, Conner DA, Xu S, Porter JA, Lanty FA. Health services use and health care costs of obese and nonobese individuals. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Oct 25; 164(19):2135-40. PMID: 15505127.
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