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William J Towner, MD, FACP, FIDSA

TitleSenior Investigator
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Southern California
DepartmentDepartment of Research and Evaluation
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-5645-2979 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    TitleRegional Physician Director, Division of Clinical Trials Research
    InstitutionKaiser Permanente Southern California
    DepartmentDepartment of Research and Evaluation


    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Towner is interested in the development and execution of pragmatic clinical trials that seek to answer how to best deliver care for a multitude of chronic disease conditions. His current clinical trial research focuses on infectious diseases, particularly HIV and Hepatitis C. He also conduct outcomes research in infectious disease.

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Horberg MA, Oakes AH, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, Chao CR, Silverberg MJ, Chantra JQ, Ellis CG, Quesenberry CP. Association of raltegravir use with long-term health outcomes in HIV-infected patients: an observational post-licensure safety study in a large integrated healthcare system. HIV Clin Trials. 2018 10; 19(5):177-187. PMID: 30370835.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hechter RC, Bider-Canfield Z, Towner W. Effect of an Electronic Alert on Targeted HIV Testing Among High-Risk Populations. Perm J. 2018; 22:18-015. PMID: 30285916.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Arribas JR, DeJesus E, van Lunzen J, Zurawski C, Doroana M, Towner W, Lazzarin A, Nelson M, McColl D, Andreatta K, Swamy R, Szwarcberg J, Nguyen T. Simplification to single-tablet regimen of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, tenofovir DF from multi-tablet ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus coformulated emtricitabine and tenofovir DF regimens: week 96 results of STRATEGY-PI. HIV Clin Trials. 2017 05; 18(3):118-125. PMID: 28555519.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Marcus JL, Leyden WA, Chao CR, Horberg MA, Klein DB, Quesenberry CP, Towner WJ, Silverberg MJ. Immunodeficiency, AIDS-related pneumonia, and risk of lung cancer among HIV-infected individuals. AIDS. 2017 04 24; 31(7):989-993. PMID: 28252529.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Wu JJ, Gilbert KE, Batech M, Manalo IF, Towner WJ, Raposo RA, Nixon DF, Liao W. Examining HIV Viral Load in a Matched Cohort of HIV Positive Individuals With and Without Psoriasis. J Drugs Dermatol. 2017 Apr 01; 16(4):372-377. PMID: 28403272.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Marcus JL, Baxter R, Leyden WA, Muthulingam D, Yee A, Horberg MA, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Chao CR, Quesenberry CP, Silverberg MJ. Invasive Pneumococcal Disease Among HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Adults in a Large Integrated Healthcare System. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2016 10; 30(10):463-470. PMID: 27749111.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Marcus JL, Chao CR, Leyden WA, Xu L, Quesenberry CP, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ. Narrowing the Gap in Life Expectancy Between HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Individuals With Access to Care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 09 01; 73(1):39-46. PMID: 27028501.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Marcus JL, Neugebauer RS, Leyden WA, Chao CR, Xu L, Quesenberry CP, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ. Use of Abacavir and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among HIV-Infected Individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Apr 01; 71(4):413-9. PMID: 26536316.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Foster GR, Afdhal N, Roberts SK, Bräu N, Gane EJ, Pianko S, Lawitz E, Thompson A, Shiffman ML, Cooper C, Towner WJ, Conway B, Ruane P, Bourlière M, Asselah T, Berg T, Zeuzem S, Rosenberg W, Agarwal K, Stedman CA, Mo H, Dvory-Sobol H, Han L, Wang J, McNally J, Osinusi A, Brainard DM, McHutchison JG, Mazzotta F, Tran TT, Gordon SC, Patel K, Reau N, Mangia A, Sulkowski M. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV Genotype 2 and 3 Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 31; 373(27):2608-17. PMID: 26575258.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Feld JJ, Jacobson IM, Hézode C, Asselah T, Ruane PJ, Gruener N, Abergel A, Mangia A, Lai CL, Chan HL, Mazzotta F, Moreno C, Yoshida E, Shafran SD, Towner WJ, Tran TT, McNally J, Osinusi A, Svarovskaia E, Zhu Y, Brainard DM, McHutchison JG, Agarwal K, Zeuzem S. Sofosbuvir and Velpatasvir for HCV Genotype 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 Dec 31; 373(27):2599-607. PMID: 26571066.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Everson GT, Towner WJ, Davis MN, Wyles DL, Nahass RG, Thuluvath PJ, Etzkorn K, Hinestrosa F, Tong M, Rabinovitz M, McNally J, Brainard DM, Han L, Doehle B, McHutchison JG, Morgan T, Chung RT, Tran TT. Sofosbuvir With Velpatasvir in Treatment-Naive Noncirrhotic Patients With Genotype 1 to 6 Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Dec 01; 163(11):818-26. PMID: 26551051.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pianko S, Flamm SL, Shiffman ML, Kumar S, Strasser SI, Dore GJ, McNally J, Brainard DM, Han L, Doehle B, Mogalian E, McHutchison JG, Rabinovitz M, Towner WJ, Gane EJ, Stedman CA, Reddy KR, Roberts SK. Sofosbuvir Plus Velpatasvir Combination Therapy for Treatment-Experienced Patients With Genotype 1 or 3 Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Dec 01; 163(11):809-17. PMID: 26551263.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Kadlecik P, Antoniskis D, Mogyoros M, Brachman PS, Remmers CL, Gambatese RC, Blank J, Ellis CG, Silverberg MJ. The HIV Care Cascade Measured Over Time and by Age, Sex, and Race in a Large National Integrated Care System. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Nov; 29(11):582-90. PMID: 26505968.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Nguyen HQ, Bailey A, Coleman KJ, Desai S, Fan VS, Gould MK, Maddock L, Miller K, Towner W, Xiang AH, Moy ML. Patient-centered physical activity coaching in COPD (Walk On!): A study protocol for a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2016 Jan; 46:18-29. PMID: 26597414.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Naggie S, Cooper C, Saag M, Workowski K, Ruane P, Towner WJ, Marks K, Luetkemeyer A, Baden RP, Sax PE, Gane E, Santana-Bagur J, Stamm LM, Yang JC, German P, Dvory-Sobol H, Ni L, Pang PS, McHutchison JG, Stedman CA, Morales-Ramirez JO, Bräu N, Jayaweera D, Colson AE, Tebas P, Wong DK, Dieterich D, Sulkowski M. Ledipasvir and Sofosbuvir for HCV in Patients Coinfected with HIV-1. N Engl J Med. 2015 Aug 20; 373(8):705-13. PMID: 26196665.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Marcus JL, Leyden WA, Chao CR, Xu L, Quesenberry CP, Tien PC, Klein DB, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ. Differences in Response to Antiretroviral Therapy by Sex and Hepatitis C Infection Status. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Jul; 29(7):370-8. PMID: 26061798.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Marcus JL, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Yu J, Horberg MA, Klein D, Towner WJ, Quesenberry CP, Abrams DI, Silverberg MJ. Survival among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals with common non-AIDS-defining cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Aug; 24(8):1167-73. PMID: 25713023.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Klein DB, Leyden WA, Xu L, Chao CR, Horberg MA, Towner WJ, Hurley LB, Marcus JL, Quesenberry CP, Silverberg MJ. Declining relative risk for myocardial infarction among HIV-positive compared with HIV-negative individuals with access to care. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Apr 15; 60(8):1278-80. PMID: 25595743.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Gazzard B, Girard PM, Di Perri G, Gallant J, Towner W, Rogatto F, Demorin J, McColl D, Liu H, Rhee M, Szwarcberg J, Piontkowsky D. Long-term efficacy and safety of E/C/F/TDF vs EFV/FTC/TDF and ATV+RTV+FTC/TDF in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve subjects =50 years. J Int AIDS Soc. 2014; 17(4 Suppl 3):19767. PMID: 25397511.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Marcus JL, Leyden WA, Chao CR, Chow FC, Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Klein DB, Quesenberry CP, Towner WJ, Silverberg MJ. HIV infection and incidence of ischemic stroke. AIDS. 2014 Aug 24; 28(13):1911-9. PMID: 24937309.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Marcus JL, Chao CR, Leyden WA, Xu L, Klein DB, Horberg MA, Towner WJ, Quesenberry CP, Abrams DI, Van Den Eeden SK, Silverberg MJ. Prostate cancer incidence and prostate-specific antigen testing among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Aug 15; 66(5):495-502. PMID: 24820107.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Manns M, Pol S, Jacobson IM, Marcellin P, Gordon SC, Peng CY, Chang TT, Everson GT, Heo J, Gerken G, Yoffe B, Towner WJ, Bourliere M, Metivier S, Chu CJ, Sievert W, Bronowicki JP, Thabut D, Lee YJ, Kao JH, McPhee F, Kopit J, Mendez P, Linaberry M, Hughes E, Noviello S. All-oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b: a multinational, phase 3, multicohort study. Lancet. 2014 Nov 01; 384(9954):1597-605. PMID: 25078304.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Cohen C, Wohl D, Arribas JR, Henry K, Van Lunzen J, Bloch M, Towner W, Wilkins E, Ebrahimi R, Porter D, White K, Walker I, Chuck S, De-Oertel S, Fralich T. Week 48 results from a randomized clinical trial of rilpivirine/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate vs. efavirenz/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in treatment-naive HIV-1-infected adults. AIDS. 2014 Apr 24; 28(7):989-97. PMID: 24508782.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Mills A, Crofoot G, Ortiz R, Rashbaum B, Towner W, Ward D, Brinson C, Kulkarni R, Garner W, Ebrahimi R, Cao H, Cheng A, Szwarcberg J. Switching from twice-daily raltegravir plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine to once-daily elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in virologically suppressed, HIV-1-infected subjects: 48 weeks data. HIV Clin Trials. 2014 Mar-Apr; 15(2):51-6. PMID: 24710918.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Hechter RC, Jacobsen SJ, Luo Y, Nomura JH, Towner WJ, Tartof SY, Tseng HF. Hepatitis B testing and vaccination among adults with sexually transmitted infections in a large managed care organization. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Jun; 58(12):1739-45. PMID: 24571863.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Silverberg MJ, Leyden WA, Xu L, Horberg MA, Chao CR, Towner WJ, Hurley LB, Quesenberry CP, Klein DB. Immunodeficiency and risk of myocardial infarction among HIV-positive individuals with access to care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Feb 01; 65(2):160-6. PMID: 24442222.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Melikian GL, Rhee SY, Varghese V, Porter D, White K, Taylor J, Towner W, Troia P, Burack J, Dejesus E, Robbins GK, Razzeca K, Kagan R, Liu TF, Fessel WJ, Israelski D, Shafer RW. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) cross-resistance: implications for preclinical evaluation of novel NNRTIs and clinical genotypic resistance testing. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Jan; 69(1):12-20. PMID: 23934770.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Horberg MA, Klein D, Towner WJ, Quesenberry CP, Abrams DI, Silverberg MJ. Exposure to antiretroviral therapy and risk of cancer in HIV-infected persons. AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2223-31. PMID: 22951631.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, Allerton MW, Tang BT, Catz SL, Silverberg MJ, Quesenberry CP. Influence of provider experience on antiretroviral adherence and viral suppression. HIV AIDS (Auckl). 2012; 4:125-33. PMID: 22924015.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Towner WJ, Xu L, Leyden WA, Horberg MA, Chao CR, Tang B, Klein DB, Hurley LB, Quesenberry CP, Silverberg MJ. The effect of HIV infection, immunodeficiency, and antiretroviral therapy on the risk of hepatic dysfunction. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jul 01; 60(3):321-7. PMID: 22343179.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Horberg MA, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, Allerton MW, Tang BT, Catz SL, Silverberg MJ, Quesenberry CP. Determination of optimized multidisciplinary care team for maximal antiretroviral therapy adherence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Jun 01; 60(2):183-90. PMID: 22293551.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Rhee SY, Blanco JL, Liu TF, Pere I, Kaiser R, Zazzi M, Incardona F, Towner W, Gatell JM, De Luca A, Fessel WJ, Shafer RW. Standardized representation, visualization and searchable repository of antiretroviral treatment-change episodes. AIDS Res Ther. 2012 May 03; 9(1):13. PMID: 22554313.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Chao C, Tang B, Hurley L, Silverberg MJ, Towner W, Preciado M, Horberg M. Risk factors for short-term virologic outcomes among HIV-infected patients undergoing regimen switch of combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2012 Dec; 28(12):1630-6. PMID: 22475276.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Chao C, Tang B, Towner W, Silverberg MJ, Hurley L, Horberg M. Short-term clinical outcomes among treatment-experienced HIV-positive patients with early low level viremia. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2012 May; 26(5):253-5. PMID: 22424146.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Melikian GL, Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia-Cancio PV, Zolopa A, Robbins GK, Kagan R, Israelski D, Shafer RW. Standardized comparison of the relative impacts of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT) mutations on nucleoside RT inhibitor susceptibility. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 May; 56(5):2305-13. PMID: 22330916.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Horberg MA, Klein D, Towner WJ, Dubrow R, Quesenberry CP, Neugebauer RS, Abrams DI. HIV infection, immunodeficiency, viral replication, and the risk of cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2011 Dec; 20(12):2551-9. PMID: 22109347.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Chao C, Xu L, Abrams DI, Towner WJ, Horberg MA, Leyden WA, Silverberg MJ. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) use and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in HIV-positive persons. AIDS. 2011 Sep 10; 25(14):1771-7. PMID: 21681055.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Wohl AR, Carlos JA, Tejero J, Dierst-Davies R, Daar ES, Khanlou H, Cadden J, Towner W, Frye D. Barriers and unmet need for supportive services for HIV patients in care in Los Angeles County, California. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 Sep; 25(9):525-32. PMID: 21774689.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Horberg M, Hurley L, Towner W, Gambatese R, Klein D, Antoniskis D, Weinberg W, Kadlecik P, Remmers C, Dobrinich R, Quesenberry C, Silverberg M, Johnson M. HIV quality performance measures in a large integrated health care system. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2011 Jan; 25(1):21-8. PMID: 21214376.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Rhee SY, Taylor J, Fessel WJ, Kaufman D, Towner W, Troia P, Ruane P, Hellinger J, Shirvani V, Zolopa A, Shafer RW. HIV-1 protease mutations and protease inhibitor cross-resistance. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010 Oct; 54(10):4253-61. PMID: 20660676.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Chao C, Xu L, Abrams D, Leyden W, Horberg M, Towner W, Klein D, Tang B, Silverberg M. Survival of non-Hodgkin lymphoma patients with and without HIV infection in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2010 Jul 17; 24(11):1765-70. PMID: 20453630.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Grinsztejn B, Di Perri G, Towner W, Woodfall B, De Smedt G, Peeters M. A review of the safety and tolerability profile of the next-generation NNRTI etravirine. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2010 Jul; 26(7):725-33. PMID: 20624073.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Towner W, Lalezari J, Sension MG, Wohlfeiler M, Gathe J, Appelbaum JS, Bellman P, Gottlieb MS, Ryan R, Nijs S, Hoogstoel A, Van Solingen-Ristea R, Witek J. Efficacy, safety, and tolerability of etravirine with and without darunavir/ritonavir or raltegravir in treatment-experienced patients: analysis of the etravirine early access program in the United States. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Apr; 53(5):614-8. PMID: 20134329.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Horberg M, Tang B, Towner W, Silverberg M, Bersoff-Matcha S, Hurley L, Chang J, Blank J, Quesenberry C, Klein D. Impact of tenofovir on renal function in HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naive patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Jan; 53(1):62-9. PMID: 19838127.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Towner WJ, Cassetti I, Domingo P, Nijs S, Kakuda TN, Vingerhoets J, Woodfall B. Etravirine: clinical review of a treatment option for HIV type-1-infected patients with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance. Antivir Ther. 2010; 15(6):803-16. PMID: 20834093.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Katlama C, Clotet B, Mills A, Trottier B, Molina JM, Grinsztejn B, Towner W, Haubrich R, Nijs S, Vingerhoets J, Woodfall B, Witek J. Efficacy and safety of etravirine at week 96 in treatment-experienced HIV type-1-infected patients in the DUET-1 and DUET-2 trials. Antivir Ther. 2010; 15(7):1045-52. PMID: 21041921.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Silverberg MJ, Chao C, Leyden WA, Xu L, Tang B, Horberg MA, Klein D, Quesenberry CP, Towner WJ, Abrams DI. HIV infection and the risk of cancers with and without a known infectious cause. AIDS. 2009 Nov 13; 23(17):2337-45. PMID: 19741479.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Shahriar R, Rhee SY, Liu TF, Fessel WJ, Scarsella A, Towner W, Holmes SP, Zolopa AR, Shafer RW. Nonpolymorphic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 protease and reverse transcriptase treatment-selected mutations. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Nov; 53(11):4869-78. PMID: 19721070.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Towner W, Klein D, Kerrigan HL, Follansbee S, Yu K, Horberg M. Virologic outcomes of changing enfuvirtide to raltegravir in HIV-1 patients well controlled on an enfuvirtide based regimen: 24-week results of the CHEER study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Aug 01; 51(4):367-73. PMID: 19487951.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Horberg M, Klein D, Hurley L, Silverberg M, Towner W, Antoniskis D, Kovach D, Mogyoros M, Blake W, Dobrinich R, Dodge W. Efficacy and safety of ritonavir-boosted and unboosted atazanavir among antiretroviral-naïve patients. HIV Clin Trials. 2008 Nov-Dec; 9(6):367-74. PMID: 19203902.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lawrence JM, Liu IL, Towner WJ. Trends and correlates of HIV testing during pregnancy in racially/ethnically diverse insured population, 1997-2006. Matern Child Health J. 2009 Sep; 13(5):633-40. PMID: 18712463.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Elion R, Dejesus E, Sension M, Berger D, Towner W, Richmond G, St Clair M, Yau L, Ha B. Once-daily abacavir/lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted atazanavir for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in antiretroviral-naïve patients: a 48-week pilot study. HIV Clin Trials. 2008 May-Jun; 9(3):152-63. PMID: 18547902.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Horberg MA, Silverberg MJ, Hurley LB, Towner WJ, Klein DB, Bersoff-Matcha S, Weinberg WG, Antoniskis D, Mogyoros M, Dodge WT, Dobrinich R, Quesenberry CP, Kovach DA. Effects of depression and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor use on adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy and on clinical outcomes in HIV-infected patients. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Mar 01; 47(3):384-90. PMID: 18091609.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Towner WJ. The Changing Face of HIV Infection. Perm J. 2008; 12(4):60-4. PMID: 21339926.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Lazzarin A, Campbell T, Clotet B, Johnson M, Katlama C, Moll A, Towner W, Trottier B, Peeters M, Vingerhoets J, de Smedt G, Baeten B, Beets G, Sinha R, Woodfall B. Efficacy and safety of TMC125 (etravirine) in treatment-experienced HIV-1-infected patients in DUET-2: 24-week results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2007 Jul 07; 370(9581):39-48. PMID: 17617271.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Horberg M, Antoniskis D, Bersoff-Matcha S, Hurley L, Klein D, Kovach D, Mogyoros M, Towner W, Weinberg W. Perceptions of human immunodeficiency virus testing services among HIV-positive persons not in medical care. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jul; 33(7):464; author reply 465. PMID: 16688101.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Wohl AR, Lu S, Turner J, Kovacs A, Witt M, Squires K, Towner W, Beer V. Risk of opportunistic infection in the HAART era among HIV-infected Latinos born in the United States compared to Latinos born in Mexico and Central America. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Jun; 17(6):267-75. PMID: 12880490.
      View in: PubMed
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