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Susan Shortreed, PhD

TitleAssociate Investigator
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Washington
DepartmentHealth Research Institute
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-7918-601X Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Susan Shortreed, PhD's research brings together statistics and machine learning methods to address health science problems, with a special emphasis on analyzing complex longitudinal data and overcoming missing-data challenges. Much of her methodological work is focused on developing and evaluating statistical inference approaches for observational data, such as data from electronic health care records or from randomized clinical trials with missing information. Dr. Shortreed is also interested in developing new machine learning methods and extending current best-practice methods, specifically for personalized dynamic treatment strategies, clustering, and model selection methods.

    Dr. Shortreed earned her PhD in statistics from the University of Washington in 2006. After completing her degree, she spent two years in the Department of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, and two years in the School of Computer Science at McGill University. Dr. Shortreed has collaborated with scientists in a broad range of areas including cancer screening, cardiovascular disease, and medication and vaccine safety. Currently, she works most often with researchers in mental and behavioral health, evaluating and comparing treatments for chronic pain, depression, and bipolar disorder, and interventions to prevent alcohol misuse, smoking, and suicide. Dr. Shortreed is an investigator with the Mental Health Research Network, designing studies to address important public health concerns, such as determining which antidepressant medications work best for which patients.

    In addition to her work at Kaiser Permanente Washington Health Research Institute, Dr. Shortreed is an affiliate associate professor at the University of Washington Biostatistics Department. She serves on the executive board for the American Statistical Association’s Section on Statistics in Epidemiology and the editorial board of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C: Applied Statistics.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Dublin S, Walker RL, Shortreed SM, Ludman EJ, Sherman KJ, Hansen RN, Thakral M, Saunders K, Parchman ML, Von Korff M. Impact of initiatives to reduce prescription opioid risks on medically attended injuries in people using chronic opioid therapy. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2018 Oct 30. PMID: 30375121.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Von Korff M, Saunders K, Dublin S, Walker RL, Thakral M, Sherman KJ, Ludman EJ, Hansen RN, Parchman M, Shortreed SM. Impact of Chronic Opioid Therapy Risk Reduction Initiatives on Opioid Overdose. J Pain. 2018 Sep 03. PMID: 30189248.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Sherman KJ, Walker RL, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Parchman M, Hansen RN, Thakral M, Ludman EJ, Dublin S, Von Korff M. Doctor-Patient Trust Among Chronic Pain Patients on Chronic Opioid Therapy after Opioid Risk Reduction Initiatives: A Survey. J Am Board Fam Med. 2018 Jul-Aug; 31(4):578-587. PMID: 29986984.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Simon GE, Johnson E, Lawrence JM, Rossom RC, Ahmedani B, Lynch FL, Beck A, Waitzfelder B, Ziebell R, Penfold RB, Shortreed SM. Predicting Suicide Attempts and Suicide Deaths Following Outpatient Visits Using Electronic Health Records. Am J Psychiatry. 2018 Oct 01; 175(10):951-960. PMID: 29792051.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Simon GE, Johnson E, Stewart C, Rossom RC, Beck A, Coleman KJ, Waitzfelder B, Penfold R, Operskalski BH, Shortreed SM. Does Patient Adherence to Antidepressant Medication Actually Vary Between Physicians? J Clin Psychiatry. 2018 May/Jun; 79(3). PMID: 29068611.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Coleman KJ, Johnson E, Ahmedani BK, Beck A, Rossom RC, Shortreed SM, Simon GE. Predicting Suicide Attempts for Racial and Ethnic Groups of Patients During Routine Clinical Care. Suicide Life Threat Behav. 2018 Mar 24. PMID: 29574965.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Thakral M, Walker RL, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Dublin S, Parchman M, Hansen RN, Ludman E, Sherman KJ, Von Korff M. Impact of Opioid Dose Reduction and Risk Mitigation Initiatives on Chronic Opioid Therapy Patients at Higher Risk for Opioid-Related Adverse Outcomes. Pain Med. 2017 Dec 06. PMID: 29220525.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Zeber JE, Coleman KJ, Fischer H, Yoon TK, Ahmedani BK, Beck A, Hubley S, Imel ZE, Rossom RC, Shortreed SM, Stewart C, Waitzfelder BE, Simon GE. The impact of race and ethnicity on rates of return to psychotherapy for depression. Depress Anxiety. 2017 12; 34(12):1157-1163. PMID: 29095538.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Berger D, Lapham GT, Shortreed SM, Hawkins EJ, Rubinsky AD, Williams EC, Achtmeyer CE, Kivlahan DR, Bradley KA. Increased Rates of Documented Alcohol Counseling in Primary Care: More Counseling or Just More Documentation? J Gen Intern Med. 2018 Mar; 33(3):268-274. PMID: 29047076.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Thakral M, Walker RL, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Parchman M, Hansen RN, Ludman E, Sherman KJ, Dublin S, Von Korff M. Comparing Pain and Depressive Symptoms of Chronic Opioid Therapy Patients Receiving Dose Reduction and Risk Mitigation Initiatives With Usual Care. J Pain. 2018 Jan; 19(1):111-120. PMID: 29038060.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Von Korff M, Walker RL, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Thakral M, Parchman M, Hansen RN, Ludman E, Sherman KJ, Dublin S. Prevalence of prescription opioid use disorder among chronic opioid therapy patients after health plan opioid dose and risk reduction initiatives. Int J Drug Policy. 2017 08; 46:90-98. PMID: 28666143.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Simon GE, Shortreed SM, Johnson E, Beck A, Coleman KJ, Rossom RC, Whiteside US, Operskalski BH, Penfold RB. Between-visit changes in suicidal ideation and risk of subsequent suicide attempt. Depress Anxiety. 2017 09; 34(9):794-800. PMID: 28440902.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Williams EC, Lapham GT, Bobb JF, Rubinsky AD, Catz SL, Shortreed SM, Bensley KM, Bradley KA. Documented brief intervention not associated with resolution of unhealthy alcohol use one year later among VA patients living with HIV. J Subst Abuse Treat. 2017 07; 78:8-14. PMID: 28554608.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Penfold RB, Stewart C, Simon GE, Shortreed SM, Johnson E, Rossom RC, Operskalski B, Beck A. Antidepressant Use by Youth with Minimal or Mild Depression: Evidence from 3 Health Systems. Pediatr Qual Saf. 2017 Mar; 2(2):e017. PMID: 29862381.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Shortreed SM, Laber E, Scott Stroup T, Pineau J, Murphy SA. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. Stat Med. 2017 Oct 15; 36(23):3760. PMID: 28872255.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Shortreed SM, Ertefaie A. Outcome-adaptive lasso: Variable selection for causal inference. Biometrics. 2017 12; 73(4):1111-1122. PMID: 28273693.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Williams EC, Lapham GT, Shortreed SM, Rubinsky AD, Bobb JF, Bensley KM, Catz SL, Richards JE, Bradley KA. Among patients with unhealthy alcohol use, those with HIV are less likely than those without to receive evidence-based alcohol-related care: A national VA study. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2017 05 01; 174:113-120. PMID: 28324813.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Thielke SM, Shortreed SM, Saunders K, Turner JA, LeResche L, Von Korff M. A Prospective Study of Predictors of Long-term Opioid Use Among Patients With Chronic Noncancer Pain. Clin J Pain. 2017 03; 33(3):198-204. PMID: 27428547.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Von Korff M, Shortreed SM, LeResche L, Saunders K, Thielke S, Thakral M, Rosenberg D, Turner JA. A longitudinal study of depression among middle-aged and senior patients initiating chronic opioid therapy. J Affect Disord. 2017 03 15; 211:136-143. PMID: 28113120.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Hansen RN, Walker RL, Shortreed SM, Dublin S, Saunders K, Ludman EJ, Von Korff M. Impact of an opioid risk reduction initiative on motor vehicle crash risk among chronic opioid therapy patients. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2017 01; 26(1):47-55. PMID: 27862597.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Turner JA, Shortreed SM, Saunders KW, LeResche L, Thielke S, Von Korff M. Does association of opioid use with pain and function differ by fibromyalgia or widespread pain status? Pain. 2016 10; 157(10):2208-16. PMID: 27643834.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Shortreed SM, Johnson E, Rutter CM, Kamineni A, Wernli KJ, Chubak J. Cohort restriction based on prior enrollment: Examining potential biases in estimating cancer and mortality risk. Obs Stud. 2016 Aug; 2:51-64. PMID: 28530002.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Simon GE, Beck A, Rossom R, Richards J, Kirlin B, King D, Shulman L, Ludman EJ, Penfold R, Shortreed SM, Whiteside U. Population-based outreach versus care as usual to prevent suicide attempt: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2016 09 15; 17(1):452. PMID: 27634417.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Rossom RC, Shortreed S, Coleman KJ, Beck A, Waitzfelder BE, Stewart C, Ahmedani BK, Zeber JE, Simon GE. ANTIDEPRESSANT ADHERENCE ACROSS DIVERSE POPULATIONS AND HEALTHCARE SETTINGS. Depress Anxiety. 2016 08; 33(8):765-74. PMID: 27320786.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Moodie EE, Karran JC, Shortreed SM. A case study of SMART attributes: a qualitative assessment of generalizability, retention rate, and trial quality. Trials. 2016 May 14; 17(1):242. PMID: 27180047; PMCID: PMC4894372.
    26. Turner JA, Shortreed SM, Saunders KW, LeResche L, Von Korff M. Association of levels of opioid use with pain and activity interference among patients initiating chronic opioid therapy: a longitudinal study. Pain. 2016 Apr; 157(4):849-57. PMID: 26785321; PMCID: PMC4939796 [Available on 04/01/17].
    27. Shortreed SM, Von Korff M, Thielke S, LeResche L, Saunders K, Rosenberg D, Turner JA. Electronic Health Records to Evaluate and Account for Non-response Bias: A Survey of Patients Using Chronic Opioid Therapy. Obs Stud. 2016; 2:24-38. PMID: 28042621.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Simon GE, Coleman KJ, Rossom RC, Beck A, Oliver M, Johnson E, Whiteside U, Operskalski B, Penfold RB, Shortreed SM, Rutter C. Risk of suicide attempt and suicide death following completion of the Patient Health Questionnaire depression module in community practice. J Clin Psychiatry. 2016 Feb; 77(2):221-7. PMID: 26930521; PMCID: PMC4993156 [Available on 02/01/17].
    29. Ertefaie A, Shortreed S, Chakraborty B. Q-learning residual analysis: application to the effectiveness of sequences of antipsychotic medications for patients with schizophrenia. Stat Med. 2016 06 15; 35(13):2221-34. PMID: 26750518; PMCID: PMC4853263 [Available on 06/15/17].
    30. Von Korff M, Turner JA, Shortreed SM, Saunders K, Rosenberg D, Thielke S, LeResche L. Timeliness of Care Planning upon Initiation of Chronic Opioid Therapy for Chronic Pain. Pain Med. 2016 03; 17(3):511-520. PMID: 26814284.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Simon GE, Rossom RC, Beck A, Waitzfelder BE, Coleman KJ, Stewart C, Operskalski B, Penfold RB, Shortreed SM. Antidepressants are not overprescribed for mild depression. J Clin Psychiatry. 2015 Dec; 76(12):1627-32. PMID: 26580702; PMCID: PMC4866597 [Available on 12/01/16].
    32. Von Korff M, Dublin S, Walker RL, Parchman M, Shortreed SM, Hansen RN, Saunders K. The Impact of Opioid Risk Reduction Initiatives on High-Dose Opioid Prescribing for Patients on Chronic Opioid Therapy. J Pain. 2016 Jan; 17(1):101-10. PMID: 26476264; PMCID: PMC4698093 [Available on 01/01/17].
    33. Balderson BH, McCurry SM, Vitiello MV, Shortreed SM, Rybarczyk BD, Keefe FJ, Korff MV. Information without Implementation: A Practical Example for Developing a Best Practice Education Control Group. Behav Sleep Med. 2016 Sep-Oct; 14(5):514-27. PMID: 26485203.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Saunders KW, Shortreed S, Thielke S, Turner JA, LeResche L, Beck R, Von Korff M. Evaluation of Health Plan Interventions to Influence Chronic Opioid Therapy Prescribing. Clin J Pain. 2015 Sep; 31(9):820-829. PMID: 25621426.
      View in: PubMed
    35. LeResche L, Saunders K, Dublin S, Thielke S, Merrill JO, Shortreed SM, Campbell C, Von Korff MR. Sex and Age Differences in Global Pain Status Among Patients Using Opioids Long Term for Chronic Noncancer Pain. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2015 Aug; 24(8):629-35. PMID: 26153668; PMCID: PMC4545568.
    36. Lapham GT, Rubinsky AD, Shortreed SM, Hawkins EJ, Richards J, Williams EC, Berger D, Chavez LJ, Kivlahan DR, Bradley KA. Comparison of provider-documented and patient-reported brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in VA outpatients. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2015 Aug 01; 153:159-66. PMID: 26072218; PMCID: PMC4620927.
    37. Friesen MC, Shortreed SM, Wheeler DC, Burstyn I, Vermeulen R, Pronk A, Colt JS, Baris D, Karagas MR, Schwenn M, Johnson A, Armenti KR, Silverman DT, Yu K. Using hierarchical cluster models to systematically identify groups of jobs with similar occupational questionnaire response patterns to assist rule-based expert exposure assessment in population-based studies. Ann Occup Hyg. 2015 May; 59(4):455-66. PMID: 25477475; PMCID: PMC4385262.
    38. Turner JA, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, LeResche L, Riddell K, Rapp SE, Von Korff M. Chronic opioid therapy urine drug testing in primary care: prevalence and predictors of aberrant results. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Dec; 29(12):1663-71. PMID: 25217208; PMCID: PMC4242878.
    39. Shortreed SM, Laber E, Scott Stroup T, Pineau J, Murphy SA. A multiple imputation strategy for sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. Stat Med. 2014 Oct 30; 33(24):4202-14. PMID: 24919867; PMCID: PMC4184954.
    40. Vitiello MV, McCurry SM, Shortreed SM, Baker LD, Rybarczyk BD, Keefe FJ, Von Korff M. Short-term improvement in insomnia symptoms predicts long-term improvements in sleep, pain, and fatigue in older adults with comorbid osteoarthritis and insomnia. Pain. 2014 Aug; 155(8):1547-54. PMID: 24793909; PMCID: PMC4104256.
    41. McClure JB, Peterson D, Derry H, Riggs K, Saint-Johnson J, Nair V, An L, Shortreed SM. Exploring the "active ingredients" of an online smoking intervention: a randomized factorial trial. Nicotine Tob Res. 2014 Aug; 16(8):1129-39. PMID: 24727369; PMCID: PMC4110925.
    42. McCurry SM, Shortreed SM, Von Korff M, Balderson BH, Baker LD, Rybarczyk BD, Vitiello MV. Who benefits from CBT for insomnia in primary care? Important patient selection and trial design lessons from longitudinal results of the Lifestyles trial. Sleep. 2014 Feb 01; 37(2):299-308. PMID: 24497658; PMCID: PMC3900626.
    43. Thielke SM, Turner JA, Shortreed SM, Saunders K, Leresche L, Campbell CI, Weisner CC, Korff MV. Do patient-perceived pros and cons of opioids predict sustained higher-dose use? Clin J Pain. 2014 Feb; 30(2):93-101. PMID: 23535150; PMCID: PMC3805783.
    44. LeResche L, Turner JA, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Von Korff M. Psychophysical tests as predictors of back pain chronicity in primary care. J Pain. 2013 Dec; 14(12):1663-70. PMID: 24290446.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Shortreed SM, Bogart A, McClure JB. Using multiple imputations to accommodate time-outs in online interventions. J Med Internet Res. 2013 Nov 21; 15(11):e252. PMID: 24263289; PMCID: PMC3841344.
    46. Turner JA, Saunders K, Shortreed SM, Rapp SE, Thielke S, LeResche L, Riddell KM, Von Korff M. Chronic opioid therapy risk reduction initiative: impact on urine drug testing rates and results. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Feb; 29(2):305-11. PMID: 24142119; PMCID: PMC3912304.
    47. Von Korff M, Shortreed SM, Saunders KW, LeResche L, Berlin JA, Stang P, Turner JA. Comparison of back pain prognostic risk stratification item sets. J Pain. 2014 Jan; 15(1):81-9. PMID: 24295877.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Vitiello MV, McCurry SM, Shortreed SM, Balderson BH, Baker LD, Keefe FJ, Rybarczyk BD, Von Korff M. Cognitive-behavioral treatment for comorbid insomnia and osteoarthritis pain in primary care: the lifestyles randomized controlled trial. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2013 Jun; 61(6):947-56. PMID: 23711168; PMCID: PMC3772673.
    49. Turner JA, Shortreed SM, Saunders KW, Leresche L, Berlin JA, Von Korff M. Optimizing prediction of back pain outcomes. Pain. 2013 Aug; 154(8):1391-401. PMID: 23688822.
      View in: PubMed
    50. McClure JB, Shortreed SM, Bogart A, Derry H, Riggs K, St John J, Nair V, An L. The effect of program design on engagement with an internet-based smoking intervention: randomized factorial trial. J Med Internet Res. 2013 Mar 25; 15(3):e69. PMID: 23529377; PMCID: PMC3636802.
    51. Shortreed SM, Peeters A, Forbes AB. Estimating the effect of long-term physical activity on cardiovascular disease and mortality: evidence from the Framingham Heart Study. Heart. 2013 May; 99(9):649-54. PMID: 23474622.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Wheeler DC, Burstyn I, Vermeulen R, Yu K, Shortreed SM, Pronk A, Stewart PA, Colt JS, Baris D, Karagas MR, Schwenn M, Johnson A, Silverman DT, Friesen MC. Inside the black box: starting to uncover the underlying decision rules used in a one-by-one expert assessment of occupational exposure in case-control studies. Occup Environ Med. 2013 Mar; 70(3):203-10. PMID: 23155187.
      View in: PubMed
    53. McClure JB, Derry H, Riggs KR, Westbrook EW, St John J, Shortreed SM, Bogart A, An LC. Questions about quitting (Q2): design and methods of a Multiphase Optimization Strategy (MOST) randomized screening experiment for an online, motivational smoking cessation intervention. Contemp Clin Trials. 2012 Sep; 33(5):1094-102. PMID: 22771577; PMCID: PMC3408878.
    54. Rutter CM, Shortreed SM. Writing a clinically appraised topic is a team sport. Acad Radiol. 2012 Jul; 19(7):777-8. PMID: 22703763.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Shortreed SM, Moodie EE. Estimating the optimal dynamic antipsychotic treatment regime: Evidence from the sequential multiple assignment randomized CATIE Schizophrenia Study. J R Stat Soc Ser C Appl Stat. 2012 Aug 01; 61(4):577-599. PMID: 23087488.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Shortreed SM, Laber E, Lizotte DJ, Stroup TS, Pineau J, Murphy SA. Informing sequential clinical decision-making through reinforcement learning: an empirical study. Mach Learn. 2011 Jul 01; 84(1-2):109-136. PMID: 21799585.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Brennan SL, Cicuttini FM, Shortreed S, Forbes A, Jones G, Stuckey SL, Wluka AE. Women lose patella cartilage at a faster rate than men: a 4.5-year cohort study of subjects with knee OA. Maturitas. 2010 Nov; 67(3):270-4. PMID: 20708358.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Abdullah A, Stoelwinder J, Shortreed S, Wolfe R, Stevenson C, Walls H, de Courten M, Peeters A. The duration of obesity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. Public Health Nutr. 2011 Jan; 14(1):119-26. PMID: 20587115.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Shortreed SM, Forbes AB. Missing data in the exposure of interest and marginal structural models: a simulation study based on the Framingham Heart Study. Stat Med. 2010 Feb 20; 29(4):431-43. PMID: 20025082.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Urquhart DM, Shortreed S, Davis SR, Cicuttini FM, Bell RJ. Are low levels of low back pain intensity and disability associated with reduced well-being in community-based women? Climacteric. 2009 Jun; 12(3):266-75. PMID: 19437198.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Botlero R, Davis SR, Urquhart DM, Shortreed S, Bell RJ. Age-specific prevalence of, and factors associated with, different types of urinary incontinence in community-dwelling Australian women assessed with a validated questionnaire. Maturitas. 2009 Feb 20; 62(2):134-9. PMID: 19181467.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Forbes A, Shortreed S. Inverse probability weighted estimation of the marginal odds ratio: correspondence regarding 'The performance of different propensity score methods for estimating marginal odds ratios'. Stat Med. 2008 Nov 20; 27(26):5556-9; author reply 5560-3. PMID: 18613263.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Magliano DJ, Shaw JE, Shortreed SM, Nusselder WJ, Liew D, Barr EL, Zimmet PZ, Peeters A. Lifetime risk and projected population prevalence of diabetes. Diabetologia. 2008 Dec; 51(12):2179-86. PMID: 18810385.
      View in: PubMed
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