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Gregory A Nichols, PhD

TitleCenter for Health Research Distinguished Investigator
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northwest
DepartmentCenter for Health Research - Northwest
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-7563-6236 Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Dr. Gregory Nichols' research experience melds scientific training and policy vision with a hands-on understanding of the complexities of obtaining and analyzing health-utilization data.

    Dr. Nichols constructed Kaiser Permanente Northwest's Diabetes Registry in 1989 and has used it to conduct health services, economic, and epidemiologic research studies on patients before and after diabetes diagnosis. A recent focus of his work has been anti-hyperglycemic treatment failure in type 2 diabetes, and the development of decision rules to assist clinicians in responding to this type of treatment failure.

    Other areas of interest include cardiovascular disease and depression, as well as the precursors to both diabetes and cardiovascular disease, commonly known as metabolic syndrome.

    Dr. Nichols is leading the creation of a 12-site diabetes registry that involves HMO research partners from around the United States. Other projects include a study of diabetes incidence for all possible combinations of metabolic syndrome components and costs of medical care associated with components of the metabolic syndrome. Dr. Nichols also led a study of changes in HDL cholesterol and risk of subsequent cardiovascular-disease hospitalization among patients with diabetes. He is a co-investigator on a multi-site study of outcomes related to further intensifying diabetes therapy in patients already on at least two medications, and on another multi-site study on initiating metformin early versus later following diabetes diagnosis.

    Before becoming a CHR Investigator, Dr. Nichols served as a senior research associate at CHR, a rate analyst for Kaiser Permanente, and a financial analyst for the Northrop Corporation. He holds a PhD in public administration and policy from Portland State University and an MBA from Pepperdine University.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R03HS007991     (NICHOLS, GREGORY A)Aug 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 1995
    AHRQ
    THE DETECTION AND TREATMENT OF DEPRESSION IN A LARGE HMO
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21DK063961     (NICHOLS, GREGORY A)Apr 1, 2004 - Mar 31, 2006
    NIH/NIDDK
    Characteristics and Costs of Impaired Fasting Glucose
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R21HS018596     (NICHOLS, GREGORY A)Sep 30, 2009 - Mar 31, 2010
    AHRQ
    Model Portability for Complex Patients
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R18HL095481     (GOLD, RACHEL)Sep 7, 2010 - May 31, 2015
    NIH/NHLBI
    Dissemination of CVD risk factor treatment among diabetic patients in FQHCs
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R21DK091773     (NICHOLS, GREGORY A)Dec 10, 2011 - Nov 30, 2014
    NIH/NIDDK
    Cumulative Glycemic Burden and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Type 2 Diabetes
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Nichols GA, Romo-LeTourneau V, Vupputuri S, Thomas SM. Delays in anti-hyperglycaemic therapy initiation and intensification are associated with cardiovascular events, hospitalizations for heart failure and all-cause mortality. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 Mar 03. PMID: 30828964.
      View in: PubMed
    2. LeBlanc ES, Smith NX, Nichols GA, Allison MJ, Clarke GN. Insomnia is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in the clinical setting. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2018; 6(1):e000604. PMID: 30687505.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, Fazio S. Increased residual cardiovascular risk in patients with diabetes and high versus normal triglycerides despite statin-controlled LDL cholesterol. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2019 02; 21(2):366-371. PMID: 30225881.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Nichols GA, Raebel MA, Dyer W, Schmittdiel JA. The Effect of Age and Comorbidities on the Association Between the Medicare STAR Oral Antihyperglycemic Adherence Metric and Glycemic Control. J Manag Care Spec Pharm. 2018 Sep; 24(9):856-861. PMID: 30156449.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, Fazio S. Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Hypertriglyceridemic Patients With Statin-Controlled LDL Cholesterol. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2018 08 01; 103(8):3019-3027. PMID: 29850861.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Nichols GA, Philip S, Reynolds K, Granowitz CB, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, Fazio S. Comparison of Medical Care Utilization and Costs Among Patients With Statin-Controlled Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol With Versus Without Hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Cardiol. 2018 Oct 01; 122(7):1128-1132. PMID: 30086877.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Schroeder EB, Chonchol M, Shetterly SM, Powers JD, Adams JL, Schmittdiel JA, Nichols GA, O'Connor PJ, Steiner JF. Add-On Antihypertensive Medications to Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Blockers in Diabetes: A Comparative Effectiveness Study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2018 May 07; 13(5):727-734. PMID: 29572286.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Glauber H, Vollmer WM, Nichols GA. A Simple Model for Predicting Two-Year Risk of Diabetes Development in Individuals with Prediabetes. Perm J. 2018; 22:17-050. PMID: 29309270.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Nichols GA, Déruaz-Luyet A, Hauske SJ, Brodovicz KG. The association between estimated glomerular filtration rate, albuminuria, and risk of cardiovascular hospitalizations and all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2018 03; 32(3):291-297. PMID: 29352693.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Raebel MA, Dyer W, Nichols GA, Goodrich GK, Schmittdiel JA. Relationships between Medication Adherence and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Control in Elderly Patients with Diabetes. Pharmacotherapy. 2017 Oct; 37(10):1204-1214. PMID: 28752555.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Nichols GA, Brodovicz KG, Kimes TM, Déruaz-Luyet A, Bartels DB. Prevalence and incidence of urinary tract and genital infections among patients with and without type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Nov; 31(11):1587-1591. PMID: 28888425.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Aro AL, Reinier K, Phan D, Teodorescu C, Uy-Evanado A, Nichols GA, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Left-ventricular geometry and risk of sudden cardiac arrest in patients with preserved or moderately reduced left-ventricular ejection fraction. Europace. 2017 Jul 01; 19(7):1146-1152. PMID: 27256423.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Schroeder EB, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Nichols GA, O'Connor PJ, Steiner JF. Predicting the 6-month risk of severe hypoglycemia among adults with diabetes: Development and external validation of a prediction model. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Jul; 31(7):1158-1163. PMID: 28462891.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Nichols GA, Horberg M, Koebnick C, Young DR, Waitzfelder B, Sherwood NE, Daley MF, Ferrara A. Cardiometabolic Risk Factors Among 1.3 Million Adults With Overweight or Obesity, but Not Diabetes, in 10 Geographically Diverse Regions of the United States, 2012-2013. Prev Chronic Dis. 2017 03 09; 14:E22. PMID: 28278130.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Karter AJ, Lipska KJ, O'Connor PJ, Liu JY, Moffet HH, Schroeder EB, Lawrence JM, Nichols GA, Newton KM, Pathak RD, Desai J, Waitzfelder B, Butler MG, Thomas A, Steiner JF. High rates of severe hypoglycemia among African American patients with diabetes: the surveillance, prevention, and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) network. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 May; 31(5):869-873. PMID: 28319006.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Nichols GA, Reynolds K, Olufade T, Kimes TM, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, Sapp DS, Anzalone D, Fortmann SP. Effect of Combination Cholesterol-Lowering Therapy and Triglyceride-Lowering Therapy on Medical Costs in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2017 Feb 01; 119(3):410-415. PMID: 27890243.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Nichols GA, Bell K, Kimes TM, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M. Medical Care Costs Associated With Long-term Weight Maintenance Versus Weight Gain Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2016 Nov; 39(11):1981-1986. PMID: 27561921.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Nichols GA, Rosales AG, Kimes TM, Tunceli K, Kurtyka K, Mavros P. The Change in HbA1c Associated with Initial Adherence and Subsequent Change in Adherence among Diabetes Patients Newly Initiating Metformin Therapy. J Diabetes Res. 2016; 2016:9687815. PMID: 27579326.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Nichols GA, McBurnie M, Paul L, Potter JE, McCann S, Mayer K, Melgar G, D'Amato S, DeVoe JE. The High Prevalence of Diabetes in a Large Cohort of Patients Drawn From Safety Net Clinics. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016 06 16; 13:E78. PMID: 27309415.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Young DR, Waitzfelder BA, Arterburn D, Nichols GA, Ferrara A, Koebnick C, Yamamoto A, Daley MF, Sherwood NE, Horberg MA, Cromwell L, Lewis KH. The Patient Outcomes Research To Advance Learning (PORTAL) Network Adult Overweight and Obesity Cohort: Development and Description. JMIR Res Protoc. 2016 Jun 15; 5(2):e87. PMID: 27307352.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Pathak RD, Schroeder EB, Seaquist ER, Zeng C, Lafata JE, Thomas A, Desai J, Waitzfelder B, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Karter AJ, Steiner JF, Segal J, O'Connor PJ. Severe Hypoglycemia Requiring Medical Intervention in a Large Cohort of Adults With Diabetes Receiving Care in U.S. Integrated Health Care Delivery Systems: 2005-2011. Diabetes Care. 2016 Mar; 39(3):363-70. PMID: 26681726.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Narayanan K, Uy-Evanado A, Teodorescu C, Reinier K, Nichols GA, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Mitral valve prolapse and sudden cardiac arrest in the community. Heart Rhythm. 2016 Feb; 13(2):498-503. PMID: 26416619.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Green CA, Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Stumbo SP, Perrin NA, Nichols GA, Stevens VJ. Weight maintenance following the STRIDE lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Oct; 23(10):1995-2001. PMID: 26334929.
      View in: PubMed
    24. LeBlanc ES, Rosales AG, Kachroo S, Mukherjee J, Funk KL, Nichols GA. Do patient or provider characteristics impact management of diabetes? Am J Manag Care. 2015 Sep; 21(9):597-606. PMID: 26618363.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Desai JR, Vazquez-Benitez G, Xu Z, Schroeder EB, Karter AJ, Steiner JF, Nichols GA, Reynolds K, Xu S, Newton K, Pathak RD, Waitzfelder B, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Kirchner HL, Thomas A, O'Connor PJ. Who Must We Target Now to Minimize Future Cardiovascular Events and Total Mortality?: Lessons From the Surveillance, Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Cohort Study. Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes. 2015 Sep; 8(5):508-16. PMID: 26307132.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Nichols GA, Reynolds K. Reply: To PMID 26361825. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Nov 01; 116(9):1486. PMID: 26365225.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Narayanan K, Reinier K, Uy-Evanado A, Teodorescu C, Zhang L, Chugh H, Nichols GA, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Risk of Sudden Cardiac Death. JACC Clin Electrophysiol. 2015 Oct; 1(5):381-387. PMID: 29759465.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Reinier K, Nichols GA, Huertas-Vazquez A, Uy-Evanado A, Teodorescu C, Stecker EC, Gunson K, Jui J, Chugh SS. Distinctive Clinical Profile of Blacks Versus Whites Presenting With Sudden Cardiac Arrest. Circulation. 2015 Aug 04; 132(5):380-7. PMID: 26240262.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Nichols GA, Reynolds K, Kimes TM, Rosales AG, Chan WW. Comparison of Risk of Re-hospitalization, All-Cause Mortality, and Medical Care Resource Utilization in Patients With Heart Failure and Preserved Versus Reduced Ejection Fraction. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Oct 01; 116(7):1088-92. PMID: 26235928.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Schroeder EB, Desai J, Schmittdiel JA, Paolino AR, Schneider JL, Goodrich GK, Lawrence JM, Newton KM, Nichols GA, O'Connor PJ, Fitz-Randolph M, Steiner JF. An Innovative Approach to Informing Research: Gathering Perspectives on Diabetes Care Challenges From an Online Patient Community. Interact J Med Res. 2015 Jun 30; 4(2):e13. PMID: 26126421.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Gold R, Nelson C, Cowburn S, Bunce A, Hollombe C, Davis J, Muench J, Hill C, Mital M, Puro J, Perrin N, Nichols G, Turner A, Mercer M, Jaworski V, Howard C, Abiles E, Shah A, Dudl J, Chan W, DeVoe J. Feasibility and impact of implementing a private care system's diabetes quality improvement intervention in the safety net: a cluster-randomized trial. Implement Sci. 2015 Jun 10; 10:83. PMID: 26059264.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Nichols GA, Rosales AG, Kimes TM, Tunceli K, Kurtyka K, Mavros P, Steiner JF. Impact on glycated haemoglobin of a biological response-based measure of medication adherence. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2015 Sep; 17(9):843-8. PMID: 25880136.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Reynolds K, Butler MG, Kimes TM, Rosales AG, Chan W, Nichols GA. Relation of Acute Heart Failure Hospital Length of Stay to Subsequent Readmission and All-Cause Mortality. Am J Cardiol. 2015 Aug 01; 116(3):400-5. PMID: 26037295.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Schroeder EB, Powers JD, O'Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Xu S, Desai JR, Karter AJ, Morales LS, Newton KM, Pathak RD, Vazquez-Benitez G, Raebel MA, Butler MG, Lafata JE, Reynolds K, Thomas A, Waitzfelder BE, Steiner JF. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease among individuals with diabetes in the SUPREME-DM Project, 2005-2011. J Diabetes Complications. 2015 Jul; 29(5):637-43. PMID: 25936953.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Schmittdiel JA, Nichols GA, Dyer W, Steiner JF, Karter AJ, Raebel MA. Health care system-level factors associated with performance on Medicare STAR adherence metrics in a large, integrated delivery system. Med Care. 2015 Apr; 53(4):332-7. PMID: 25719517.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Schmittdiel JA, Desai J, Schroeder EB, Paolino AR, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, O'Connor PJ, Ohnsorg KA, Newton KM, Steiner JF. Methods for engaging stakeholders in comparative effectiveness research: a patient-centered approach to improving diabetes care. Healthc (Amst). 2015 Jun; 3(2):80-8. PMID: 26179728.
      View in: PubMed
    37. LeBlanc ES, Rosales AG, Kachroo S, Mukherjee J, Funk KL, Schneider JL, Nichols GA. Provider beliefs about diabetes treatment have little impact on glycemic control of their patients with diabetes. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2015; 3(1):e000062. PMID: 25741443.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Vazquez-Benitez G, Desai JR, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Nichols GA, Segal J, Butler MG, Karter AJ, Steiner JF, Newton KM, Morales LS, Pathak RD, Thomas A, Reynolds K, Kirchner HL, Waitzfelder B, Elston Lafata J, Adibhatla R, Xu Z, O'Connor PJ. Preventable major cardiovascular events associated with uncontrolled glucose, blood pressure, and lipids and active smoking in adults with diabetes with and without cardiovascular disease: a contemporary analysis. Diabetes Care. 2015 May; 38(5):905-12. PMID: 25710922.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Nichols GA, Schroeder EB, Karter AJ, Gregg EW, Desai J, Lawrence JM, O'Connor PJ, Xu S, Newton KM, Raebel MA, Pathak RD, Waitzfelder B, Segal J, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Kirchner HL, Thomas A, Steiner JF. Trends in diabetes incidence among 7 million insured adults, 2006-2011: the SUPREME-DM project. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 01; 181(1):32-9. PMID: 25515167.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Schmittdiel J, Raebel M, Dyer W, Steiner J, Goodrich G, Karter A, Nichols G. Medicare Star excludes diabetes patients with poor CVD risk factor control. Am J Manag Care. 2014 Dec; 20(12):e581-9. PMID: 25665192.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Schmittdiel J, Raebel M, Dyer W, Steiner J, Goodrich G, Karter A, Nichols G. Medicare Star excludes diabetes patients with poor CVD risk factor control. Am J Manag Care. 2014 Dec 01; 20(12):e573-81. PMID: 25741874.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Schmittdiel JA, Steiner JF, Adams AS, Dyer W, Beals J, Henderson WG, Desai J, Morales LS, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Waitzfelder B, Butler MG, Pathak RD, Hamman RF, Manson SM. Diabetes care and outcomes for American Indians and Alaska natives in commercial integrated delivery systems: a SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) Study. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care. 2014; 2(1):e000043. PMID: 25452877.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Green CA, Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Yarborough MT, Stumbo SP, Janoff SL, Perrin NA, Nichols GA, Stevens VJ. The STRIDE weight loss and lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications: a randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jan; 172(1):71-81. PMID: 25219423.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Narayanan K, Reinier K, Teodorescu C, Uy-Evanado A, Aleong R, Chugh H, Nichols GA, Gunson K, London B, Jui J, Chugh SS. Left ventricular diameter and risk stratification for sudden cardiac death. J Am Heart Assoc. 2014 Sep 16; 3(5):e001193. PMID: 25227407.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Vijayadeva V, Nichols GA. Impact of implementing glycated hemoglobin testing for identification of dysglycemia in youth. Perm J. 2014; 18(4):21-7. PMID: 25141989.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Schmittdiel JA, Raebel MA, Dyer W, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Segal JB, O' Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Kirchner HL, Karter AJ, Lafata JE, Butler MG, Steiner JF. Prescription medication burden in patients with newly diagnosed diabetes: a SUrveillance, PREvention, and ManagEment of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. J Am Pharm Assoc (2003). 2014 Jul-Aug; 54(4):374-82. PMID: 24860866.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Winterstein AG, Kubilis P, Bird S, Cooper-DeHoff RM, Nichols GA, Delaney JA. Misclassification in assessment of diabetogenic risk using electronic health records. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Aug; 23(8):875-81. PMID: 24923707.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Raebel MA, Ellis JL, Schroeder EB, Xu S, O'Connor PJ, Segal JB, Butler MG, Schmittdiel JA, Kirchner HL, Goodrich GK, Lawrence JM, Nichols GA, Newton KM, Pathak RD, Steiner JF. Intensification of antihyperglycemic therapy among patients with incident diabetes: a Surveillance Prevention and Management of Diabetes Mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf. 2014 Jul; 23(7):699-710. PMID: 24639086.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Vupputuri S, Kimes TM, Calloway MO, Christian JB, Bruhn D, Martin AA, Nichols GA. The economic burden of progressive chronic kidney disease among patients with type 2 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications. 2014 Jan-Feb; 28(1):10-6. PMID: 24211091.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Raebel MA, Xu S, Goodrich GK, Schroeder EB, Schmittdiel JA, Segal JB, O'Connor PJ, Nichols GA, Lawrence JM, Kirchner HL, Elston Lafata J, Butler M, Newton KM, Steiner JF. Initial antihyperglycemic drug therapy among 241 327 adults with newly identified diabetes from 2005 through 2010: a surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus (SUPREME-DM) study. Ann Pharmacother. 2013 Oct; 47(10):1280-91. PMID: 24259692.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Nichols GA, Rosales AG, Perrin NA, Fortmann SP. The association between different A1C-based measures of glycemia and risk of cardiovascular disease hospitalization. Diabetes Care. 2014; 37(1):167-72. PMID: 23990520.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Neugebauer R, Fireman B, Roy JA, Raebel MA, Nichols GA, O'Connor PJ. Super learning to hedge against incorrect inference from arbitrary parametric assumptions in marginal structural modeling. J Clin Epidemiol. 2013 Aug; 66(8 Suppl):S99-109. PMID: 23849160.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Cooper--DeHoff RM, Bird ST, Nichols GA, Delaney JA, Winterstein AG. Antihypertensive drug class interactions and risk for incident diabetes: a nested case-control study. J Am Heart Assoc. 2013 Jun 10; 2(3):e000125. PMID: 23752710.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Nichols GA, Joshua-Gotlib S, Parasuraman S. Glycemic control and risk of cardiovascular disease hospitalization and all-cause mortality. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013 Jul 09; 62(2):121-127. PMID: 23665365.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Nichols GA, Joshua-Gotlib S, Parasuraman S. Independent contribution of A1C, systolic blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol control to risk of cardiovascular disease hospitalizations in type 2 diabetes: an observational cohort study. J Gen Intern Med. 2013 May; 28(5):691-7. PMID: 23345072.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Feldstein AC, Schneider JL, Unitan R, Perrin NA, Smith DH, Nichols GA, Lee NL. Health care worker perspectives inform optimization of patient panel-support tools: a qualitative study. Popul Health Manag. 2013 Apr; 16(2):107-19. PMID: 23216061.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Gold R, Muench J, Hill C, Turner A, Mital M, Milano C, Shah A, Nelson C, DeVoe JE, Nichols GA. Collaborative development of a randomized study to adapt a diabetes quality improvement initiative for federally qualified health centers. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012 Aug; 23(3 Suppl):236-46. PMID: 22864500.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Desai JR, Wu P, Nichols GA, Lieu TA, O'Connor PJ. Diabetes and asthma case identification, validation, and representativeness when using electronic health data to construct registries for comparative effectiveness and epidemiologic research. Med Care. 2012 Jul; 50 Suppl:S30-5. PMID: 22692256.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Nichols GA, Desai J, Elston Lafata J, Lawrence JM, O'Connor PJ, Pathak RD, Raebel MA, Reid RJ, Selby JV, Silverman BG, Steiner JF, Stewart WF, Vupputuri S, Waitzfelder B. Construction of a multisite DataLink using electronic health records for the identification, surveillance, prevention, and management of diabetes mellitus: the SUPREME-DM project. Prev Chronic Dis. 2012; 9:E110. PMID: 22677160.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Nichols GA, Arondekar B, Jacobson TA. Hospital use and medical care costs up to 5 years after triglyceride lowering among patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. J Clin Lipidol. 2012 Sep-Oct; 6(5):443-9. PMID: 23009780.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Nichols GA, Kimes TM, Harp JB, Kou TD, Brodovicz KG. Glycemic response and attainment of A1C goals following newly initiated insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012 Mar; 35(3):495-7. PMID: 22279033.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Nichols GA, Vupputuri S, Lau H. Medical care costs associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care. 2011 Nov; 34(11):2374-8. PMID: 22025783.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Nichols GA, Vupputuri S, Rosales AG. Change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and risk of subsequent hospitalization for coronary artery disease or stroke among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Cardiol. 2011 Oct 15; 108(8):1124-8. PMID: 21985949.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Nichols GA, Arondekar B, Garrison LP. Patient characteristics and medical care costs associated with hypertriglyceridemia. Am J Cardiol. 2011 Jan 15; 107(2):225-9. PMID: 21211599.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Nichols GA, Moler EJ. Metabolic syndrome components are associated with future medical costs independent of cardiovascular hospitalization and incident diabetes. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2011 Apr; 9(2):127-33. PMID: 21166586.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Vupputuri S, Nichols GA, Lau H, Joski P, Thorp ML. Risk of progression of nephropathy in a population-based sample with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2011 Feb; 91(2):246-52. PMID: 21156326.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Nichols GA, Moler EJ. Cardiovascular disease, heart failure, chronic kidney disease and depression independently increase the risk of incident diabetes. Diabetologia. 2011 Mar; 54(3):523-6. PMID: 21107522.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Feldstein AC, Perrin NA, Unitan R, Rosales AG, Nichols GA, Smith DH, Schneider J, Davino CM, Zhou YY, Lee NL. Effect of a patient panel-support tool on care delivery. Am J Manag Care. 2010 Oct 01; 16(10):e256-66. PMID: 20964477.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Nichols GA, Conner C, Brown JB. Initial nonadherence, primary failure and therapeutic success of metformin monotherapy in clinical practice. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Sep; 26(9):2127-35. PMID: 20658898.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Nichols GA, Moler EJ. Diabetes incidence for all possible combinations of metabolic syndrome components. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Oct; 90(1):115-21. PMID: 20630609.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Nichols GA, Wang F, Pedula KL. Comparison of evidence-based versus non-evidence-based pharmacotherapy on the risk of cardiovascular hospitalization and all-cause mortality among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2010 Mar 15; 105(6):786-91. PMID: 20211320.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Nichols GA, Bell TJ, Pedula KL, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M. Medical care costs among patients with established cardiovascular disease. Am J Manag Care. 2010 Mar; 16(3):e86-e93. PMID: 20205493.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Zhang P, Zhang X, Brown J, Vistisen D, Sicree R, Shaw J, Nichols G. Global healthcare expenditure on diabetes for 2010 and 2030. Diabetes Res Clin Pract. 2010 Mar; 87(3):293-301. PMID: 20171754.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Nichols GA, Gandra SR, Chiou CF, Anthony MS, Alexander-Bridges M, Brown JB. Successes and challenges of insulin therapy for type 2 diabetes in a managed-care setting. Curr Med Res Opin. 2010 Jan; 26(1):9-15. PMID: 19891525.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Brown JB, Conner C, Nichols GA. Secondary failure of metformin monotherapy in clinical practice. Diabetes Care. 2010 Mar; 33(3):501-6. PMID: 20040656.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Nichols GA, Ambegaonkar BM, Sazonov V, Brown JB. Frequency of obtaining national cholesterol education program adult treatment panel III goals for all major serum lipoproteins after initiation of lipid altering therapy. Am J Cardiol. 2009 Dec 15; 104(12):1689-94. PMID: 19962476.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Malone DC, Boudreau DM, Nichols GA, Raebel MA, Fishman PA, Feldstein AC, Ben-Joseph RH, Okamoto LJ, Boscoe AN, Magid DJ. Association of cardiometabolic risk factors and prevalent cardiovascular events. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Dec; 7(6):585-93. PMID: 19900158.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Nichols GA, Reinier K, Chugh SS. Independent contribution of diabetes to increased prevalence and incidence of atrial fibrillation. Diabetes Care. 2009 Oct; 32(10):1851-6. PMID: 19794003.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Boudreau DM, Malone DC, Raebel MA, Fishman PA, Nichols GA, Feldstein AC, Boscoe AN, Ben-Joseph RH, Magid DJ, Okamoto LJ. Health care utilization and costs by metabolic syndrome risk factors. Metab Syndr Relat Disord. 2009 Aug; 7(4):305-14. PMID: 19558267.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Nichols GA, Arondekar B, Herman WH. Complications of dysglycemia and medical costs associated with nondiabetic hyperglycemia. Am J Manag Care. 2008 Dec; 14(12):791-8. PMID: 19067496.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Smith DH, Johnson ES, Russell A, Hazlehurst B, Muraki C, Nichols GA, Oglesby A, Betz-Brown J. Lower visual acuity predicts worse utility values among patients with type 2 diabetes. Qual Life Res. 2008 Dec; 17(10):1277-84. PMID: 18972222.
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    82. Feldstein AC, Weycker D, Nichols GA, Oster G, Rosales G, Boardman DL, Perrin N. Effectiveness of bisphosphonate therapy in a community setting. Bone. 2009 Jan; 44(1):153-9. PMID: 18926939.
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    83. Nichols GA, Brown JB. Validating the Framingham Offspring Study equations for predicting incident diabetes mellitus. Am J Manag Care. 2008 Sep; 14(9):574-80. PMID: 18778172.
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    84. Feldstein AC, Nichols GA, Smith DH, Rosales AG, Perrin N. Weight change and glycemic control after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Sep; 23(9):1339-45. PMID: 18587618.
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    85. Feldstein AC, Nichols GA, Smith DH, Stevens VJ, Bachman K, Rosales AG, Perrin N. Weight change in diabetes and glycemic and blood pressure control. Diabetes Care. 2008 Oct; 31(10):1960-5. PMID: 18697899.
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    86. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Normal fasting plasma glucose and risk of type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Am J Med. 2008 Jun; 121(6):519-24. PMID: 18501234.
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    87. Weycker D, Nichols GA, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, Edelsberg J, Vincze G, Khan ZM, Oster G. Excess risk of diabetes in persons with hypertension. J Diabetes Complications. 2009 Sep-Oct; 23(5):330-6. PMID: 18513997.
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    88. Nichols GA, Koro CE, Kolatkar NS. The incidence of heart failure among nondiabetic patients with and without impaired fasting glucose. J Diabetes Complications. 2009 May-Jun; 23(3):224-8. PMID: 18413158.
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    89. Nichols GA, Arondekar B, Herman WH. Medical care costs one year after identification of hyperglycemia below the threshold for diabetes. Med Care. 2008 Mar; 46(3):287-92. PMID: 18388843.
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    90. Nichols GA, Nag S, Chan W. Intensity of lipid-lowering therapy and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment among the elderly before and after the 2004 National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III update. Am Heart J. 2007 Sep; 154(3):554-60. PMID: 17719305.
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    91. Weycker D, Nichols GA, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, Edelsberg J, Vincze G, Khan ZM, Oster G. Risk of chronic kidney disease in hypertensive patients with other metabolic conditions. J Hum Hypertens. 2008 Feb; 22(2):132-4. PMID: 17728802.
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    92. Nichols GA, Koro CE. Does statin therapy initiation increase the risk for myopathy? An observational study of 32,225 diabetic and nondiabetic patients. Clin Ther. 2007 Aug; 29(8):1761-70. PMID: 17919557.
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    93. Weycker D, Nichols GA, O'Keeffe-Rosetti M, Edelsberg J, Khan ZM, Kaura S, Oster G. Risk-factor clustering and cardiovascular disease risk in hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens. 2007 Jun; 20(6):599-607. PMID: 17531915.
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    94. Nichols GA, Gomez-Caminero A. Response to Olivarius and Siersma: weight change or change in weight trend. Differences in analytical approaches (and differences in study samples). Diabetes Obes Metab. 2008 Feb; 10(2):183-4. PMID: 17466015.
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    95. Nichols GA, Koo YH, Shah SN. Delay of insulin addition to oral combination therapy despite inadequate glycemic control: delay of insulin therapy. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Apr; 22(4):453-8. PMID: 17372792.
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    96. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Brown JB. Progression from newly acquired impaired fasting glusose to type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2007 Feb; 30(2):228-33. PMID: 17259486.
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    97. Nichols GA, Alexander CM, Girman CJ, Kamal-Bahl SJ, Brown JB. Contemporary analysis of secondary failure of successful sulfonylurea therapy. Endocr Pract. 2007 Jan-Feb; 13(1):37-44. PMID: 17360299.
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    98. Nichols GA, Gomez-Caminero A. Weight changes following the initiation of new anti-hyperglycaemic therapies. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2007 Jan; 9(1):96-102. PMID: 17199724.
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    99. Gullion CM, Keith DS, Nichols GA, Smith DH. Impact of comorbidities on mortality in managed care patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis. 2006 Aug; 48(2):212-20. PMID: 16860186.
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    100. Nichols GA, Alexander CM, Girman CJ, Kamal-Bahl SJ, Brown JB. Treatment escalation and rise in HbA1c following successful initial metformin therapy. Diabetes Care. 2006 Mar; 29(3):504-9. PMID: 16505496.
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    101. Nichols GA, Koro CE, Chan W, Bowlin SJ, Sprecher DL. The association between fibrate use, change in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a retrospective chart review involving up to 8 years of follow-up. Clin Ther. 2006 Feb; 28(2):243-50. PMID: 16678645.
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    102. Feldstein AC, Elmer PJ, Nichols GA, Herson M. Practice patterns in patients at risk for glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Dec; 16(12):2168-74. PMID: 16142501.
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    103. Nichols GA, Brown JB. Higher medical care costs accompany impaired fasting glucose. Diabetes Care. 2005 Sep; 28(9):2223-9. PMID: 16123494.
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    104. Feldstein AC, Nichols G, Orwoll E, Elmer PJ, Smith DH, Herson M, Aickin M. The near absence of osteoporosis treatment in older men with fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Aug; 16(8):953-62. PMID: 15928798.
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    105. Nichols GA, Koro CE, Gullion CM, Ephross SA, Brown JB. The incidence of congestive heart failure associated with antidiabetic therapies. Diabetes Metab Res Rev. 2005 Jan-Feb; 21(1):51-7. PMID: 15386819.
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    106. Elmer PJ, Brown JB, Nichols GA, Oster G. Effects of weight gain on medical care costs. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2004 Nov; 28(11):1365-73. PMID: 15356665.
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    107. Nichols GA, Gullion CM, Koro CE, Ephross SA, Brown JB. The incidence of congestive heart failure in type 2 diabetes: an update. Diabetes Care. 2004 Aug; 27(8):1879-84. PMID: 15277411.
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    108. Nichols GA, Brown JB. Functional status before and after diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2004 Jul; 21(7):793-7. PMID: 15209777.
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    109. Brown JB, Nichols GA, Perry A. The burden of treatment failure in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2004 Jul; 27(7):1535-40. PMID: 15220224.
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    110. Smith DH, Gullion CM, Nichols G, Keith DS, Brown JB. Cost of medical care for chronic kidney disease and comorbidity among enrollees in a large HMO population. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004 May; 15(5):1300-6. PMID: 15100370.
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    111. Keith DS, Nichols GA, Gullion CM, Brown JB, Smith DH. Longitudinal follow-up and outcomes among a population with chronic kidney disease in a large managed care organization. Arch Intern Med. 2004 Mar 22; 164(6):659-63. PMID: 15037495.
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    112. Feldstein AC, Nichols GA, Elmer PJ, Smith DH, Aickin M, Herson M. Older women with fractures: patients falling through the cracks of guideline-recommended osteoporosis screening and treatment. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2003 Dec; 85-A(12):2294-302. PMID: 14668497.
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    113. Nichols GA, Brown JB. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence of diagnosed depression in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2003 Mar; 26(3):744-9. PMID: 12610032.
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    114. Brown JB, Nichols GA. Slow response to loss of glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Manag Care. 2003 Mar; 9(3):213-7. PMID: 12643338.
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    115. Shye D, Brown JB, Mullooly JP, Nichols GA. Understanding changes in primary care clinicians' satisfaction from depression care activities during adoption of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Am J Manag Care. 2002 Nov; 8(11):963-74. PMID: 12437311.
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    116. Nichols GA, Brown JB. The impact of cardiovascular disease on medical care costs in subjects with and without type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2002 Mar; 25(3):482-6. PMID: 11874934.
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    117. Brown JB, Delea TE, Nichols GA, Edelsberg J, Elmer PJ, Oster G. Use of oral antithrombotic agents among health maintenance organization members with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2002 Jan 28; 162(2):193-9. PMID: 11802753.
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    118. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Erbey JR, Brown JB. Congestive heart failure in type 2 diabetes: prevalence, incidence, and risk factors. Diabetes Care. 2001 Sep; 24(9):1614-9. PMID: 11522708.
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    119. DeBar LL, Clarke GN, O'Connor E, Nichols GA. Treated prevalence, incidence, and pharmacotherapy of child and adolescent mood disorders in an HMO. Ment Health Serv Res. 2001 Jun; 3(2):73-89. PMID: 12109840.
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    120. Thompson D, Brown JB, Nichols GA, Elmer PJ, Oster G. Body mass index and future healthcare costs: a retrospective cohort study. Obes Res. 2001 Mar; 9(3):210-8. PMID: 11323447.
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    121. Brown JB, Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Bakst AW, Schaeffer M, Kelleher CC. Health care costs associated with escalation of drug treatment in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2001 Jan 15; 58(2):151-7. PMID: 11202539.
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    122. Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Brown JB. Type 2 diabetes: incremental medical care costs during the 8 years preceding diagnosis. Diabetes Care. 2000 Nov; 23(11):1654-9. PMID: 11092288.
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    123. Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Javor K, Brown JB. Achieving further glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus. West J Med. 2000 Sep; 173(3):175-9. PMID: 10986179.
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    124. Nichols GA, Brown JB. Following depression in primary care: do family practice physicians ask about depression at different rates than internal medicine physicians? Arch Fam Med. 2000 May; 9(5):478-82. PMID: 10810955.
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    125. Nichols GA, Hillier TA, Javor K, Brown JB. Predictors of glycemic control in insulin-using adults with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2000 Mar; 23(3):273-7. PMID: 10868850.
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    126. Brown JB, Nichols GA, Glauber HS. Case-control study of 10 years of comprehensive diabetes care. West J Med. 2000 Feb; 172(2):85-90. PMID: 10693367.
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    127. Brown JB, Shye D, McFarland BH, Nichols GA, Mullooly JP, Johnson RE. Controlled trials of CQI and academic detailing to implement a clinical practice guideline for depression. Jt Comm J Qual Improv. 2000 Jan; 26(1):39-54. PMID: 10677821.
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    128. Melander A, Olsson J, Lindberg G, Salzman A, Howard T, Stang P, Lydick E, Emslie-Smith A, Boyle DI, Evans JM, Macdonald TM, Bain J, Sullivan F, Juhl C, Pørksen N, Sturis J, Hollingdal M, Pincus S, Veldhuis J, Dejgaard A, Schmitz O, Kristensen JS, Frandsen KB, Bayer T, Müller P, Dunning BE, Paladini S, Gutierrez C, Deacon R, Valentin M, Grunberger G, Weston WM, Patwardhan R, Rappaport EB, Sargeant LA, Wareham NJ, Khaw KT, Zethelius B, Lithell H, Hales CN, Berne C, Lakka HM, Oksanen L, Tuomainen TP, Kontula K, Salonen JT, Dekker JM, de Boks P, de Vegt F, Stehouwer CD, Nijpels G, Bouter LM, Heine RJ, Bruno G, Cavallo-Perin P, Bargero G, D'Errico N, Borra M, Macchia G, Pagano G, Newton RW, Ruta DA, New JP, Wallace C, Roxburgh MA, Young RJ, Vaughan NJ, Elliott P, Brennan G, Devers M, MacAlpine R, Steinke D, Lawson DH, Decallonne B, Casteels K, Gysemans C, Bouillon R, Mathieu C, Linn T, Strate C, Schneider K, Funda DP, Jirsa M, Kozáková H, Kaas A, Kofronová O, Tlaskalová-Hogenová H, Buschard K, Wanka H, Hartmann A, Kuttler B, Rasmussen SB, Sørensen TS, Markholst H, Petersen JS, Karounos D, Dyrberg T, Mabley JG, Haskó G, Szabó C, Seissler J, Nguyen TB, Steinbrenner H, Scherbaum WA, Cipriani R, Gabriele A, Sensi M, Guidobaldi L, Pantellini F, Cerrito MG, Scarpa S, Di Mario U, Morano S, Ceolotto G, Iori E, Baritono E, Del Prato S, Semplicini A, Trevisan R, Zerbini G, Meregalli G, Asnaghi V, Tentori F, Maestroni A, Mangili R, Marescotti C, Vedovato M, Tiengo A, Tadjieva J, Mankovsky BN, Van Aken S, Raes A, Vande Walle J, Matthys D, Craen M, Hansen HP, Lund SS, Rossing P, Jensen T, Parving HH, Andersen S, Tarnow L, Hansen BV, Trautner C, Haastert B, Ennenbach N, Willich S, Tabák ÁG, Orchard TJ, Spranger J, Preissner KT, Schatz H, Pfeiffer A, Cantón A, Burgos R, Hernández C, Lecube A, Mesa J, Segura RM, Mateo C, Simó R, Fathallah L, Greene DA, Obrosova I, Gilbert RE, Kelly DJ, Cox AJ, Berka-Wilkinson JL, Taylor HR, Panagiotopoulos S, Lee V, Jerums G, Cooper ME, Hitman GA, Aganna E, Ogunkolade WB, Rema M, Deepa R, Shanthi-Rani CS, Barakat K, Kumarajeewa TR, Cassell PG, McDermott MF, Mohan V, Ways K, Bursell S, Devries T, Woodworth J, Alatorre C, King G, Aiello LP, Karisen AE, Pavlovic D, Nielsen K, Jensen J, Andersen HU, Pociot F, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Eizirik DL, Nerup J, Lortz S, Tiedge M, Lenzen S, Lally FJ, Bone AJ, Darville MI, Ho YS, Sternesjö J, Sandler S, Chen MC, Schuit F, Pipeleers DG, Merezak S, Hardikar A, Hoet JJ, Remacle C, Reusens B, Bréant B, Garofano A, Czernichow P, Kubota N, Terauchi Y, Miki H, Tamemoto H, Yamauchi T, Nakano R, Komeda K, Eto K, Tobe K, Kimura S, Kadowaki T, Ide T, Murakami K, Tsunoda M, Mochizuki T, Ozanne SE, Nave BT, Wang CL, Dorling MW, Petry CJ, Koopmans SJ, van der Bent C, Que I, Radder JK, Sebokova E, Sana AK, Klimes I, Ruderman N, Morviducci L, Pastore L, Morelli S, Sagratella E, Zorretta D, Buongiomo A, Tamburrano G, Giaccari A, Martinenghi S, De Angelis GC, Ravasi F, Bifari F, Bordignon C, Falqui L, Kessler A, Dransfeld O, Sasson S, Tomas E, Zorzano A, Eckel J, Thorsby P, Rosenfalck AM, Kjems L, Hanssen KF, Madsbad S, Birkeland KI, Hamilton-Wessler M, Markussen J, Bergman RN, Melki V, Hanaire-Broutin H, Bessières-Lacombe S, Tauber JP, Home PD, Lindholm A, Riis A, Rosenstock J, Schwartz S, Clark C, Edwards M, Donley D, Swift P, Mortensen HB, Lynggaard H, Hougaard P, Cull CA, Neil HA, Frighi V, Manley SE, Holman RR, Turner RC, Steiner G, Davis WA, Weeraratna T, Bruce DG, Davis TM, Vergès B, Duvillard L, Pont F, Florentin E, Gambert P, Benko B, Ljubic S, Turk Z, Granic M, März W, Wollschläger H, Klein G, Neiss A, Wehling M, Huxtable SJ, Saker PJ, Walker M, Frayling TM, Levy JC, O'Rahilly S, Hattersley AT, McCarthy MI, Orecchio A, Giacchini A, Dominici R, Canettieri G, Trinti B, Zani M, Andreoli M, Sciacchitano S, de Silva AM, Whitecross K, Pasco J, Kotowicz M, Nicholson G, Zimmet P, Boyko EJ, Collier GR, Frittitta L, Pizzuti A, Argiolas A, Graci S, Goldfine ID, Bozzali M, Ercolino T, et al. 35th Annual Meeting of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes : Brussels, Belgium, 28 September-2 October 1999. Diabetologia. 1999 Aug; 42(Suppl 1):A1-A330. PMID: 27770183.
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    129. Brown JB, Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Bakst AW. Type 2 diabetes: incremental medical care costs during the first 8 years after diagnosis. Diabetes Care. 1999 Jul; 22(7):1116-24. PMID: 10388977.
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    130. Brown JB, Nichols GA, Glauber HS, Bakst A. Ten-year follow-up of antidiabetic drug use, nonadherence, and mortality in a defined population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clin Ther. 1999 Jun; 21(6):1045-57. PMID: 10440626.
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    131. Brown J, Glauber H, Nichols G. Impact on a population-based registry of changing diagnostic thresholds for diabetes. Diabetes Care. 1998 Aug; 21(8):1374-5. PMID: 9702458.
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    132. Johnson RE, McFarland BH, Nichols GA. Changing patterns of antidepressant use and costs in a health maintenance organisation. Pharmacoeconomics. 1997 Mar; 11(3):274-86. PMID: 10165316.
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    133. Johnson RE, Hornbrook MC, Nichols GA. Replicating the chronic disease score (CDS) from automated pharmacy data. J Clin Epidemiol. 1994 Oct; 47(10):1191-9. PMID: 7722553.
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    134. Nichols G, Flanagan B, van der Sluys Veer J, Johnson JW, Hampers CL, Merrill JP. Metabolic studies of bone in uremia before and after treatment. Metabolism. 1972 Apr; 21(4):317-28. PMID: 4551382.
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    135. Nichols G, Flanagan B, Veer Jv. Distortions of bone cell metabolism in uremia and their cause. Arch Intern Med. 1969 Nov; 124(5):530-8. PMID: 5345859.
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