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Michael C Leo, PhD

TitleInvestigator
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northwest
DepartmentCenter for Health Research - Northwest
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-7052-8183 Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
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    Michael C. Leo, PhD, is a member of the Biostatistics Core. He is a consulting biostatistician and co-investigator on projects that use a variety of research designs, including quasi-experimental (longitudinal and cross-sectional), community-based participatory, and clinical trials. He is experienced with a variety of statistical techniques, such as general and generalized linear models, structural equation modeling, hierarchical linear modeling, and psychometrics.

    Dr. Leo previously was an assistant professor in the Oregon Health & Science University School of Nursing's Statistical Consulting Group, where he taught quantitative research design and analysis in the nursing PhD program. His research at OHSU included cancer-related studies encompassing chemotherapy treatment in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, clinical trials of exercise programs in breast and prostate cancer survivors, and other cancer treatment and prevention research. He was a co-investigator on studies in palliative care, fibromyalgia, depression, ADHD, worksite wellness interventions, and others. He was also an affiliate faculty member and statistical consultant in the School of Dentistry.

    Dr. Leo received his PhD from Portland State University in systems science in the areas of industrial and organizational psychology and quantitative methods. He earned his master's degree in industrial and organizational psychology from the University of Tulsa, and a bachelor's degree in economics and psychology from Binghamton University.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
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    1. Kwan ML, Leo MC, Danforth KN, Weinmann S, Lee VS, Munneke JR, Bulkley JE, Rosetti MO, Yi DK, Banegas MP, Wagner MD, Williams SG, Aaronson DS, Grant M, Krouse RS, Gilbert SM, McMullen CK. Factors that Influence Selection of Urinary Diversion among Bladder Cancer Patients in Three Community-Based Integrated Health Care Systems. Urology. 2018 Nov 21. PMID: 30471370.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Vesco KK, Beadle K, Stoneburner A, Bulkley J, Leo MC, Clark AL. Clinician knowledge, attitudes, and barriers to management of vulvovaginal atrophy: variations in primary care and gynecology. Menopause. 2018 Aug 27. PMID: 30153218.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Churchill SS, Leo MC, Brennan EM, Sellmaier C, Kendall J, Houck GM. Longitudinal Impact of a Randomized Clinical Trial to Improve Family Function, Reduce Maternal Stress and Improve Child Outcomes in Families of Children with ADHD. Matern Child Health J. 2018 08; 22(8):1172-1182. PMID: 29476416.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Clarke EV, Schneider JL, Lynch F, Kauffman TL, Leo MC, Rosales AG, Dickerson JF, Shuster E, Wilfond BS, Goddard KAB. Assessment of willingness to pay for expanded carrier screening among women and couples undergoing preconception carrier screening. PLoS One. 2018; 13(7):e0200139. PMID: 30020962.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Owen-Smith A, Mayhew M, Leo MC, Varga A, Benes L, Bonifay A, DeBar L. Automating Collection of Pain-Related Patient-Reported Outcomes to Enhance Clinical Care and Research. J Gen Intern Med. 2018 May; 33(Suppl 1):31-37. PMID: 29633139.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Wilfond BS, Kauffman TL, Jarvik GP, Reiss JA, Richards CS, McMullen C, Gilmore M, Himes P, Kraft SA, Porter KM, Schneider JL, Punj S, Leo MC, Dickerson JF, Lynch FL, Clarke E, Rope AF, Lutz K, Goddard KAB. Lessons Learned From A Study Of Genomics-Based Carrier Screening For Reproductive Decision Making. Health Aff (Millwood). 2018 05; 37(5):809-816. PMID: 29733724.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kraft SA, Schneider JL, Leo MC, Kauffman TL, Davis JV, Porter KM, McMullen CK, Wilfond BS, Goddard KAB. Patient actions and reactions after receiving negative results from expanded carrier screening. Clin Genet. 2018 May; 93(5):962-971. PMID: 29293279.
      View in: PubMed
    8. DeBar L, Benes L, Bonifay A, Deyo RA, Elder CR, Keefe FJ, Leo MC, McMullen C, Mayhew M, Owen-Smith A, Smith DH, Trinacty CM, Vollmer WM. Interdisciplinary team-based care for patients with chronic pain on long-term opioid treatment in primary care (PPACT) - Protocol for a pragmatic cluster randomized trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Apr; 67:91-99. PMID: 29522897.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Thompson JH, Davis MM, Leo MC, Schneider JL, Smith DH, Petrik AF, Castillo M, Younger B, Coronado GD. Participatory Research to Advance Colon Cancer Prevention (PROMPT): Study protocol for a pragmatic trial. Contemp Clin Trials. 2018 Apr; 67:11-15. PMID: 29408304.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Lynch FL, Himes P, Gilmore MJ, Morris EM, Schneider JL, Kauffman TL, Shuster E, Reiss JA, Dickerson JF, Leo MC, Davis JV, McMullen CK, Wilfond BS, Goddard KAB. Time Costs for Genetic Counseling in Preconception Carrier Screening with Genome Sequencing. J Genet Couns. 2018 Aug; 27(4):823-833. PMID: 29423569.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Dickerson JF, Lynch FL, Leo MC, DeBar LL, Pearson J, Clarke GN. Cost-effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Depressed Youth Declining Antidepressants. Pediatrics. 2018 Feb; 141(2). PMID: 29351965.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Mayer KH, Loo S, Crawford PM, Crane HM, Leo M, DenOuden P, Houlberg M, Schmidt M, Quach T, Ruhs S, Vandermeer M, Grasso C, McBurnie MA. Excess Clinical Comorbidity Among HIV-Infected Patients Accessing Primary Care in US Community Health Centers. Public Health Rep. 2018 Jan/Feb; 133(1):109-118. PMID: 29262289.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Naleway AL, Henninger ML, Waiwaiole LA, Mosen DM, Leo MC, Pihlstrom DJ. Dental provider practices and perceptions regarding adolescent vaccination. J Public Health Dent. 2018 Mar; 78(2):159-164. PMID: 29114884.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Akhabue E, Rittner SS, Carroll JE, Crawford PM, Dant L, Laws R, Leo MC, Puro J, Persell SD. Implications of American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) Cholesterol Guidelines on Statin Underutilization for Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes Mellitus Among Several US Networks of Community Health Centers. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Jul 03; 6(7). PMID: 28673901.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Kauffman TL, Irving SA, Leo MC, Gilmore MJ, Himes P, McMullen CK, Morris E, Schneider J, Wilfond BS, Goddard KAB. The NextGen Study: patient motivation for participation in genome sequencing for carrier status. Mol Genet Genomic Med. 2017 Sep; 5(5):508-515. PMID: 28944234.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Gilmore MJ, Schneider J, Davis JV, Kauffman TL, Leo MC, Bergen K, Reiss JA, Himes P, Morris E, Young C, McMullen C, Wilfond BS, Goddard KAB. Reasons for Declining Preconception Expanded Carrier Screening Using Genome Sequencing. J Genet Couns. 2017 Oct; 26(5):971-979. PMID: 28315134.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kauffman TL, Wilfond BS, Jarvik GP, Leo MC, Lynch FL, Reiss JA, Richards CS, McMullen C, Nickerson D, Dorschner MO, Goddard KA. Design of a randomized controlled trial for genomic carrier screening in healthy patients seeking preconception genetic testing. Contemp Clin Trials. 2017 02; 53:100-105. PMID: 27940182.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Hansen L, Rosenkranz SJ, Mularski RA, Leo MC. Family Perspectives on Overall Care in the Intensive Care Unit. Nurs Res. 2016 Nov/Dec; 65(6):446-454. PMID: 27801715.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Vesco KK, Leo MC, Karanja N, Gillman MW, McEvoy CT, King JC, Eckhardt CL, Smith KS, Perrin N, Stevens VJ. One-year postpartum outcomes following a weight management intervention in pregnant women with obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Oct; 24(10):2042-9. PMID: 27670399.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Rieckmann T, Muench J, McBurnie MA, Leo MC, Crawford P, Ford D, Stubbs J, O'Cleirigh C, Mayer KH, Fiscella K, Wright N, Doe-Simkins M, Cuddeback M, Salisbury-Afshar E, Nelson C. Medication-assisted treatment for substance use disorders within a national community health center research network. Subst Abus. 2016 Oct-Dec; 37(4):625-634. PMID: 27218678.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Fellows JL, Mularski RA, Leo MC, Bentz CJ, Waiwaiole LA, Francisco MC, Funkhouser K, Stoney CM. Referring Hospitalized Smokers to Outpatient Quit Services: A Randomized Trial. Am J Prev Med. 2016 10; 51(4):609-19. PMID: 27647061.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Sabini E, Sisti E, Coco B, Leo M, Ionni I, Menconi F, Profilo MA, Mazzi B, Rocchi R, Latrofa F, Vitti P, Brunetto M, Marcocci C, Marinò M. Statins are not a risk factor for liver damage associated with intravenous glucocorticoid pulse therapy for Graves' orbitopathy. J Endocrinol Invest. 2016 Nov; 39(11):1323-1327. PMID: 27465669.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Amendola LM, Jarvik GP, Leo MC, McLaughlin HM, Akkari Y, Amaral MD, Berg JS, Biswas S, Bowling KM, Conlin LK, Cooper GM, Dorschner MO, Dulik MC, Ghazani AA, Ghosh R, Green RC, Hart R, Horton C, Johnston JJ, Lebo MS, Milosavljevic A, Ou J, Pak CM, Patel RY, Punj S, Richards CS, Salama J, Strande NT, Yang Y, Plon SE, Biesecker LG, Rehm HL. Performance of ACMG-AMP Variant-Interpretation Guidelines among Nine Laboratories in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 07 07; 99(1):247. PMID: 27392081.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Meenan RT, Stumbo SP, Yarborough MT, Leo MC, Yarborough BJ, Green CA. An Economic Evaluation of a Weight Loss Intervention Program for People with Serious Mental Illnesses Taking Antipsychotic Medications. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2016 07; 43(4):604-15. PMID: 26149243.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Amendola LM, Jarvik GP, Leo MC, McLaughlin HM, Akkari Y, Amaral MD, Berg JS, Biswas S, Bowling KM, Conlin LK, Cooper GM, Dorschner MO, Dulik MC, Ghazani AA, Ghosh R, Green RC, Hart R, Horton C, Johnston JJ, Lebo MS, Milosavljevic A, Ou J, Pak CM, Patel RY, Punj S, Richards CS, Salama J, Strande NT, Yang Y, Plon SE, Biesecker LG, Rehm HL. Performance of ACMG-AMP Variant-Interpretation Guidelines among Nine Laboratories in the Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research Consortium. Am J Hum Genet. 2016 06 02; 98(6):1067-1076. PMID: 27181684.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Clarke G, DeBar LL, Pearson JA, Dickerson JF, Lynch FL, Gullion CM, Leo MC. Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Primary Care for Youth Declining Antidepressants: A Randomized Trial. Pediatrics. 2016 May; 137(5). PMID: 27244782; PMCID: PMC4845864 [Available on 05/01/17].
    27. Leo M, Cerroni L, Pasquantonio G, Condò SG, Condò R. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in orthodontics: review of the factors that influence the clinical success rate of the mini-implants. Clin Ter. 2016 May-Jun; 167(3):e70-7. PMID: 27424513.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Mularski RA, Hansen L, Rosenkranz SJ, Leo MC, Nagy P, Asch SM. Medical Record Quality Assessments of Palliative Care for Intensive Care Unit Patients. Do They Match the Perspectives of Nurses and Families? Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 05; 13(5):690-8. PMID: 27144795.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Li V, McBurnie MA, Simon M, Crawford P, Leo M, Rachman F, Cottrell E, Dant L, Oneha M, Chang Weir R. Impact of Social Determinants of Health on Patients with Complex Diabetes Who Are Served by National Safety-Net Health Centers. J Am Board Fam Med. 2016 May-Jun; 29(3):356-70. PMID: 27170793.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Korngiebel DM, McMullen CK, Amendola LM, Berg JS, Davis JV, Gilmore MJ, Harding CO, Himes P, Jarvik GP, Kauffman TL, Kennedy KA, Simpson DK, Leo MC, Lynch FL, Quigley DI, Reiss JA, Richards CS, Rope AF, Schneider JL, Goddard KA, Wilfond BS. Generating a taxonomy for genetic conditions relevant to reproductive planning. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Mar; 170(3):565-73. PMID: 26889673; PMCID: PMC4860293 [Available on 03/01/17].
    31. Leo MC, McMullen C, Wilfond BS, Lynch FL, Reiss JA, Gilmore MJ, Himes P, Kauffman TL, Davis JV, Jarvik GP, Berg JS, Harding C, Kennedy KA, Simpson DK, Quigley DI, Richards CS, Rope AF, Goddard KA. Patients' ratings of genetic conditions validate a taxonomy to simplify decisions about preconception carrier screening via genome sequencing. Am J Med Genet A. 2016 Mar; 170(3):574-82. PMID: 26792268; PMCID: PMC4824299 [Available on 03/01/17].
    32. Leo M, Cerroni L, Pasquantonio G, Condò SG, Condò R. Economic evaluation of Dental Sealants: A systematic review. Clin Ter. 2016; 167(1):e13-20. PMID: 26980637.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Glass AG, Leo MC, Haddad Z, Yousefi K, du Plessis M, Chen C, Choeurng V, Abdollah F, Robbins B, Ra S, Richert-Boe KE, Buerki C, Pearson K, Davicioni E, Weinmann S. Validation of a Genomic Classifier for Predicting Post-Prostatectomy Recurrence in a Community Based Health Care Setting. J Urol. 2016 06; 195(6):1748-53. PMID: 26626216.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Yarborough MT, Stumbo S, Janoff SL, Perrin NA, Green CA. Improvement in Body Image, Perceived Health, and Health-Related Self-Efficacy Among People With Serious Mental Illness: The STRIDE Study. Psychiatr Serv. 2016 Mar; 67(3):296-301. PMID: 26522674.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Green CA, Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Stumbo SP, Perrin NA, Nichols GA, Stevens VJ. Weight maintenance following the STRIDE lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Oct; 23(10):1995-2001. PMID: 26334929; PMCID: PMC4586363.
    36. Schneider JL, Goddard KA, Davis J, Wilfond B, Kauffman TL, Reiss JA, Gilmore M, Himes P, Lynch FL, Leo MC, McMullen C. "Is It Worth Knowing?" Focus Group Participants' Perceived Utility of Genomic Preconception Carrier Screening. J Genet Couns. 2016 Feb; 25(1):135-45. PMID: 26093606; PMCID: PMC4726717.
    37. Hansen L, Leo MC, Chang MF, Zaman A, Naugler W, Schwartz J. Symptom distress in patients with end-stage liver disease toward the end of life. Gastroenterol Nurs. 2015 May-Jun; 38(3):201-10. PMID: 26035777; PMCID: PMC4457294.
    38. Lewis KH, Roblin DW, Leo M, Block JP. The personal shopper--a pilot randomized trial of grocery store-based dietary advice. Clin Obes. 2015 Jun; 5(3):154-61. PMID: 25873139; PMCID: PMC4676909.
    39. Clarke G, McGlinchey EL, Hein K, Gullion CM, Dickerson JF, Leo MC, Harvey AG. Cognitive-behavioral treatment of insomnia and depression in adolescents: A pilot randomized trial. Behav Res Ther. 2015 Jun; 69:111-8. PMID: 25917009; PMCID: PMC4418229.
    40. Green CA, Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Yarborough MT, Stumbo SP, Janoff SL, Perrin NA, Nichols GA, Stevens VJ. The STRIDE weight loss and lifestyle intervention for individuals taking antipsychotic medications: a randomized trial. Am J Psychiatry. 2015 Jan; 172(1):71-81. PMID: 25219423; PMCID: PMC4282602.
    41. Vesco KK, Karanja N, King JC, Gillman MW, Leo MC, Perrin N, McEvoy CT, Eckhardt CL, Smith KS, Stevens VJ. Efficacy of a group-based dietary intervention for limiting gestational weight gain among obese women: a randomized trial. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 Sep; 22(9):1989-96. PMID: 25164259; PMCID: PMC4407817.
    42. Siegel EO, Leo MC, Young HM, Castle NG. Nursing home administrator self-assessed preparedness. Health Care Manage Rev. 2014 Jul-Sep; 39(3):210-22. PMID: 23652940.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Leo MC, Lindberg NM, Vesco KK, Stevens VJ. Validity of medical chart weights and heights for obese pregnant women. EGEMS (Wash DC). 2014; 2(1):1051. PMID: 25848585.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Nguyen-Truong CK, Leo MC, Lee-Lin F, Gedaly-Duff V, Nail LM, Gregg J, Le TV, Tran T. Adaptation and testing of instruments to measure cervical cancer screening factors among Vietnamese immigrant women. J Transcult Nurs. 2015 May; 26(3):244-53. PMID: 24692341.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Smith LB, Leo MC, Anderson C, Wright TJ, Weymann KB, Wood LJ. The role of IL-1ß and TNF-a signaling in the genesis of cancer treatment related symptoms (CTRS): a study using cytokine receptor-deficient mice. Brain Behav Immun. 2014 May; 38:66-76. PMID: 24412646; PMCID: PMC3989411.
    46. Hansen L, Leo MC, Chang MF, Zucker BL, Sasaki A. Pain and self-care behaviours in adult patients with end-stage liver disease: a longitudinal description. J Palliat Care. 2014; 30(1):32-40. PMID: 24826441; PMCID: PMC4377279.
    47. Green CA, Perrin NA, Leo MC, Janoff SL, Yarborough BJ, Paulson RI. Recovery from serious mental illness: trajectories, characteristics, and the role of mental health care. Psychiatr Serv. 2013 Dec 01; 64(12):1203-10. PMID: 23999823; PMCID: PMC4330090.
    48. Brown JP, Amaechi BT, Bader JD, Gilbert GH, Makhija SK, Lozano-Pineda J, Leo MC, Chen C, Vollmer WM. Visual scoring of non cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries-active adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2014 Jun; 42(3):271-8. PMID: 24205951; PMCID: PMC4014519.
    49. Yarborough BJ, Leo MC, Stumbo S, Perrin NA, Green CA. STRIDE: a randomized trial of a lifestyle intervention to promote weight loss among individuals taking antipsychotic medications. BMC Psychiatry. 2013 Sep 28; 13:238. PMID: 24074269; PMCID: PMC3907020.
    50. Lee-Lin F, Menon U, Leo MC, Pedhiwala N. Feasibility of a targeted breast health education intervention for Chinese American immigrant women. Oncol Nurs Forum. 2013 Jul; 40(4):361-72. PMID: 23803269.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Siegel EO, Young HM, Leo MC, Santillan V. Managing up, down, and across the nursing home: roles and responsibilities of directors of nursing. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2012 Nov; 13(4):214-23. PMID: 23639958.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Ritter AV, Bader JD, Leo MC, Preisser JS, Shugars DA, Vollmer WM, Amaechi BT, Holland JC. Tooth-surface-specific effects of xylitol: randomized trial results. J Dent Res. 2013 Jun; 92(6):512-7. PMID: 23589387; PMCID: PMC3654758.
    53. Bader JD, Vollmer WM, Shugars DA, Gilbert GH, Amaechi BT, Brown JP, Laws RL, Funkhouser KA, Makhija SK, Ritter AV, Leo MC. Results from the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT). J Am Dent Assoc. 2013 Jan; 144(1):21-30. PMID: 23283923.
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    54. Palmer EA, Vo A, Hiles SB, Peirano P, Chaudhry S, Trevor A, Kasimi I, Pollard J, Kyles C, Leo M, Wilmot B, Engle J, Peterson J, Maier T, Machida CA. Mutans streptococci genetic strains in children with severe early childhood caries: follow-up study at one-year post-dental rehabilitation therapy. J Oral Microbiol. 2012; 4. PMID: 23248741; PMCID: PMC3523314.
    55. Leo MC, Peterson D, Haas M, LeFebvre R, Bhalerao S. Development and psychometric evaluation of an evidence-based practice questionnaire for a chiropractic curriculum. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Nov-Dec; 35(9):692-700. PMID: 23206964; PMCID: PMC3572191.
    56. Haas M, Leo M, Peterson D, Lefebvre R, Vavrek D. Evaluation of the effects of an evidence-based practice curriculum on knowledge, attitudes, and self-assessed skills and behaviors in chiropractic students. J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2012 Nov-Dec; 35(9):701-9. PMID: 23206965; PMCID: PMC3515209.
    57. Nguyen-Truong CK, Lee-Lin F, Leo MC, Gedaly-Duff V, Nail LM, Wang PR, Tran T. A community-based participatory research approach to understanding pap testing adherence among Vietnamese American immigrants. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2012 Nov-Dec; 41(6):E26-40. PMID: 23030739.
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    58. Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Nail LM, Bennett JA, Leo MC, Torgrimson-Ojerio B, Luoh SW, Schwartz A. Impact + resistance training improves bone health and body composition in prematurely menopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Osteoporos Int. 2013 May; 24(5):1637-46. PMID: 22996743; PMCID: PMC3856427.
    59. Winters-Stone KM, Leo MC, Schwartz A. Exercise effects on hip bone mineral density in older, post-menopausal breast cancer survivors are age dependent. Arch Osteoporos. 2012; 7:301-6. PMID: 23225299; PMCID: PMC3533253.
    60. Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Bennett JA, Nail LM, Leo MC, Schwartz A. The effect of resistance training on muscle strength and physical function in older, postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. J Cancer Surviv. 2012 Jun; 6(2):189-99. PMID: 22193780; PMCID: PMC3488606.
    61. Timock AM, Cook V, McDonald T, Leo MC, Crowe J, Benninger BL, Covell DA. Accuracy and reliability of buccal bone height and thickness measurements from cone-beam computed tomography imaging. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2011 Nov; 140(5):734-44. PMID: 22051495.
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    62. Walker AJ, Pongsing Y, Nail L, Pedhiwala N, Leo M, Price J, Lee K, Gedaly-Duff V. Sleep-wake patterns of school-age children and adolescents before diagnosis and during induction chemotherapy for acute lymphocytic leukemia. J Pediatr Nurs. 2011 Dec; 26(6):e37-44. PMID: 22055382.
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    63. Winters-Stone KM, Dobek J, Nail L, Bennett JA, Leo MC, Naik A, Schwartz A. Strength training stops bone loss and builds muscle in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a randomized, controlled trial. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2011 Jun; 127(2):447-56. PMID: 21424279; PMCID: PMC3124708.
    64. Winters-Stone KM, Torgrimson B, Horak F, Eisner A, Nail L, Leo MC, Chui S, Luoh SW. Identifying factors associated with falls in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors: a multi-disciplinary approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2011 Apr; 92(4):646-52. PMID: 21367394; PMCID: PMC3430739.
    65. Buck T, Pellegrini P, Sauerwein R, Leo MC, Covell DA, Maier T, Machida CA. Elastomeric-ligated vs self-ligating appliances: a pilot study examining microbial colonization and white spot lesion formation after 1 year of orthodontic treatment. Orthodontics (Chic.). 2011; 12(2):108-21. PMID: 21935504.
      View in: PubMed
    66. McCarty D, Perrin NA, Green CA, Polen MR, Leo MC, Lynch F. Methadone maintenance and the cost and utilization of health care among individuals dependent on opioids in a commercial health plan. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2010 Oct 01; 111(3):235-40. PMID: 20627427; PMCID: PMC2950212.
    67. Green CA, Polen MR, Leo MC, Perrin NA, Anderson BM, Weisner CM. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health II: Predictors of Preventive Service Use. Addict Res Theory. 2010 Jul; 18(2):143-159. PMID: 23814545.
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    68. Green CA, Polen MR, Leo MC, Janoff SL, Anderson BM, Weisner CM, Perrin NA. Drinking Patterns, Gender and Health III: Avoiding vs. Seeking Healthcare. Addict Res Theory. 2010 Jan 01; 18(2):160-180. PMID: 23795149.
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    69. Green CA, Perrin NA, Polen MR, Leo MC, Hibbard JH, Tusler M. Development of the Patient Activation Measure for mental health. Adm Policy Ment Health. 2010 Jul; 37(4):327-33. PMID: 19728074; PMCID: PMC3536445.
    70. Calabrese C, Gregory WL, Leo M, Kraemer D, Bone K, Oken B. Effects of a standardized Bacopa monnieri extract on cognitive performance, anxiety, and depression in the elderly: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Altern Complement Med. 2008 Jul; 14(6):707-13. PMID: 18611150; PMCID: PMC3153866.
    71. Prochaska JO, Butterworth S, Redding CA, Burden V, Perrin N, Leo M, Flaherty-Robb M, Prochaska JM. Initial efficacy of MI, TTM tailoring and HRI's with multiple behaviors for employee health promotion. Prev Med. 2008 Mar; 46(3):226-31. PMID: 18155287; PMCID: PMC3384542.
    72. Butterworth S, Linden A, McClay W, Leo MC. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status. J Occup Health Psychol. 2006 Oct; 11(4):358-65. PMID: 17059299.
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    73. Kendall J, Leo MC, Perrin N, Hatton D. Service needs of families with children with ADHD. J Fam Nurs. 2005 Aug; 11(3):264-88. PMID: 16287828.
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    74. Kendall J, Leo MC, Perrin N, Hatton D. Modeling ADHD child and family relationships. West J Nurs Res. 2005 Jun; 27(4):500-18. PMID: 15870246.
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    75. Press N, Reynolds S, Pinsky L, Murthy V, Leo M, Burke W. 'That's like chopping off a finger because you're afraid it might get broken': disease and illness in women's views of prophylactic mastectomy. Soc Sci Med. 2005 Sep; 61(5):1106-17. PMID: 15955410.
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    76. Green CA, Polen MR, Perrin NA, Leo M, Lynch FL, Rush DP. Gender-based structural models of health care costs: alcohol use, physical health, mental health, and functioning. J Ment Health Policy Econ. 2004 Sep; 7(3):107-25. PMID: 15478990.
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    77. Kendall J, Hatton D, Beckett A, Leo M. Children's accounts of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ANS Adv Nurs Sci. 2003 Apr-Jun; 26(2):114-30. PMID: 12795540.
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    78. Paronto ME, Truxillo DM, Bauer TN, Leo MC. Drug testing, drug treatment, and marijuana use: a fairness perspective. J Appl Psychol. 2002 Dec; 87(6):1159-66. PMID: 12558221.
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