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Gabriel J Escobar MD

TitleResearch Scientist III
InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
DepartmentDivision of Research
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-2540-3327 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    TitleRegional Director for Hospital Operations Research, Kaiser Permanente Northern California
    InstitutionKaiser Permanente Northern California
    DepartmentDivision of Research


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse education and training
    Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CTMD06/1982Medicine
    UCSF, San Francisco, CAPediatrics Residency06/1985Pediatrics
    Stanford University, Stanford, CARobert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar06/1988Health Services Research
    American Board of Preventive Medicine, Chicago, ILBoard Certification12/2016Clinical Informatics

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse overview
    Gabriel J. Escobar, MD, is a research scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research; director of the Division of Research Systems Research Initiative (a research program focusing on adult hospital processes and outcomes); and Regional Director for Hospital Operations Research for Kaiser Permanente Northern California, in which capacity he works to improve Kaiser Permanente's internal reporting and quality measurement. Dr. Escobar received his medical degree from Yale University School of Medicine; completed his pediatrics residency at University of California, San Francisco; and was a Robert Wood Johnson Clinical Scholar at Stanford University School of Medicine.

    Dr. Escobar's research now focuses on the processes and outcomes in the care of hospitalized adults. His interests include risk adjustment, predictive modeling, severity-of-illness scoring, the use of comprehensive inpatient and outpatient electronic medical records for health services research, and the use of real-time decision support tools that are embedded in the electronic record. Between 1991 and 2001, Dr. Escobar developed a research program in neonatology for Kaiser Permanente Northern California. In 2001, he began development of his current research program, and in 2009 he turned over the neonatology research program to Dr. Michael Kuzniewicz at the Division of Research so that he could focus his work on adult hospital research. Dr. Escobar also practices at the Kaiser Permanente Medical centers in Walnut Creek and Antioch, where he works in the neonatal intensive care nursery and as a hospital-based pediatrician.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse research activities and funding
    R01AA012486     (ARMSTRONG, MARY ANNE)Sep 30, 1999 - Jun 30, 2005
    NIH/NIAAA
    HOW MUCH DOES SHE REALLY DRINK? AN HMO INTERVENTION
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    R01GM080180     (ESCOBAR, GABRIEL J)Sep 30, 2006 - Aug 31, 2010
    NIH/NIGMS
    Sepsis and Critical Illness in Babies >34 Weeks Gestation
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R01HS018480     (ESCOBAR, GABRIEL J)Sep 30, 2009 - Jul 31, 2013
    AHRQ
    Rapid Clinical Snapshots from the EMR among Pneumonia Patients
    Role: Principal Investigator

    R56AG055661     (ESCOBAR, GABRIEL J.)Sep 30, 2017 - Aug 31, 2018
    NIH/NIA
    Recovery or disability? Trajectories after pneumonia: Integrating 12 months of frequent patient-reported measures with EMR data
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse selected publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Faculty can login to make corrections and additions.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Anesi GL, Liu VX, Gabler NB, Delgado MK, Kohn R, Weissman GE, Bayes B, Escobar GJ, Halpern SD. Associations of Intensive Care Unit Capacity Strain with Disposition and Outcomes of Patients with Sepsis Presenting to the Emergency Department. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Nov; 15(11):1328-1335. PMID: 30113865.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Wu P, Escobar GJ, Gebretsadik T, Carroll KN, Li SX, Walsh EM, Mitchel EF, Sloan C, Dupont WD, Yu C, Horner JR, Hartert TV. Effectiveness of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Immunoprophylaxis in Reducing Bronchiolitis Hospitalizations Among High-Risk Infants. Am J Epidemiol. 2018 Jul 01; 187(7):1490-1500. PMID: 29351636.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Linnen DT, Kipnis P, Rondinelli J, Greene JD, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Risk Adjustment for Hospital Characteristics Reduces Unexplained Hospital Variation in Pressure Injury Risk. Nurs Res. 2018 Jul/Aug; 67(4):314-323. PMID: 29870519.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Schuler A, Wulf DA, Lu Y, Iwashyna TJ, Escobar GJ, Shah NH, Liu VX. The Impact of Acute Organ Dysfunction on Long-Term Survival in Sepsis. Crit Care Med. 2018 Jun; 46(6):843-849. PMID: 29432349.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Patel PB, Vinson DR, Gardner MN, Wulf DA, Kipnis P, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Impact of emergency physician-provided patient education about alternative care venues. Am J Manag Care. 2018 May; 24(5):225-231. PMID: 29851439.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Hu W, Chan CW, Zubizarreta JR, Escobar GJ. Incorporating Longitudinal Comorbidity and Acute Physiology Data in Template Matching for Assessing Hospital Quality: An Exploratory Study in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System. Med Care. 2018 May; 56(5):448-454. PMID: 29485529.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Liu VX, Escobar GJ, Chaudhary R, Prescott HC. Healthcare Utilization and Infection in the Week Prior to Sepsis Hospitalization. Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr; 46(4):513-516. PMID: 29309371.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Butwick AJ, Walsh EM, Kuzniewicz M, Li SX, Escobar GJ. Accuracy of international classification of diseases, ninth revision, codes for postpartum hemorrhage among women undergoing cesarean delivery. Transfusion. 2018 04; 58(4):998-1005. PMID: 29377131.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rondinelli J, Zuniga S, Kipnis P, Kawar LN, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Hospital-Acquired Pressure Injury: Risk-Adjusted Comparisons in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System. Nurs Res. 2018 Jan/Feb; 67(1):16-25. PMID: 29240656.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Courtright KR, Halpern SD, Bayes B, Harhay MO, Raneses E, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ, Kerlin MP. Adaptation of the Acute Organ Failure Score for Use in a Medicare Population. Crit Care Med. 2017 Nov; 45(11):1863-1870. PMID: 28777196.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Kuzniewicz MW, Escobar GJ, Puopolo KM. Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator-Reply. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 Oct 01; 171(10):1015-1016. PMID: 28806448.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Liu VX, Fielding-Singh V, Greene JD, Baker JM, Iwashyna TJ, Bhattacharya J, Escobar GJ. The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 10 01; 196(7):856-863. PMID: 28345952.
      View in: PubMed
    13. X Liu V, Fielding-Singh V, Iwashyna TJ, Bhattacharya J, Escobar GJ. Reply: The Timing of Early Antibiotics and Hospital Mortality in Sepsis: Playing Devil's Advocate. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2017 10 01; 196(7):935-936. PMID: 28485627.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Vranas KC, Jopling JK, Sweeney TE, Ramsey MC, Milstein AS, Slatore CG, Escobar GJ, Liu VX. Identifying Distinct Subgroups of ICU Patients: A Machine Learning Approach. Crit Care Med. 2017 Oct; 45(10):1607-1615. PMID: 28640021.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Escobar GJ, Baker JM, Kipnis P, Greene JD, Mast TC, Gupta SB, Cossrow N, Mehta V, Liu V, Dubberke ER. Prediction of Recurrent Clostridium Difficile Infection Using Comprehensive Electronic Medical Records in an Integrated Healthcare Delivery System. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 10; 38(10):1196-1203. PMID: 28835289.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Viglianti EM, Prescott HC, Liu V, Escobar GJ, Iwashyna TJ. Individual and health system variation in rehospitalizations the year after pneumonia. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Aug; 96(31):e7695. PMID: 28767603.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kuzniewicz MW, Puopolo KM, Fischer A, Walsh EM, Li S, Newman TB, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. A Quantitative, Risk-Based Approach to the Management of Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 04 01; 171(4):365-371. PMID: 28241253.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Escobar GJ, Baker JM, Turk BJ, Draper D, Liu V, Kipnis P. Comparing Hospital Processes and Outcomes in California Medicare Beneficiaries: Simulation Prompts Reconsideration. Perm J. 2017; 21. PMID: 29035176.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Escobar GJ, Turk BJ, Ragins A, Ha J, Hoberman B, LeVine SM, Ballesca MA, Liu V, Kipnis P. Piloting electronic medical record-based early detection of inpatient deterioration in community hospitals. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S18-S24. PMID: 27805795.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Schorr C, Odden A, Evans L, Escobar GJ, Gandhi S, Townsend S, Levy M. Implementation of a multicenter performance improvement program for early detection and treatment of severe sepsis in general medical-surgical wards. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S32-S39. PMID: 27805796.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Liu VX, Morehouse JW, Baker JM, Greene JD, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. Data that drive: Closing the loop in the learning hospital system. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S11-S17. PMID: 27805797.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Dummett BA, Adams C, Scruth E, Liu V, Guo M, Escobar GJ. Incorporating an Early Detection System Into Routine Clinical Practice in Two Community Hospitals. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S25-S31. PMID: 27805798.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Granich R, Sutton Z, Kim YS, Anderson M, Wood H, Scharf JE, Ragins A, Escobar GJ. Early detection of critical illness outside the intensive care unit: Clarifying treatment plans and honoring goals of care using a supportive care team. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S40-S47. PMID: 27805799.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Escobar GJ, Dellinger RP. Early detection, prevention, and mitigation of critical illness outside intensive care settings. J Hosp Med. 2016 11; 11 Suppl 1:S5-S10. PMID: 27805800.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Kuntz JL, Baker JM, Kipnis P, Li SX, Liu V, Xie Y, Marcella S, Escobar GJ. Utilization of Health Services Among Adults With Recurrent Clostridium difficile Infection: A 12-Year Population-Based Study. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2017 01; 38(1):45-52. PMID: 27760583.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kim SH, Chan CW, Olivares M, Escobar GJ. Association Among ICU Congestion, ICU Admission Decision, and Patient Outcomes. Crit Care Med. 2016 10; 44(10):1814-21. PMID: 27332046.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Kipnis P, Turk BJ, Wulf DA, LaGuardia JC, Liu V, Churpek MM, Romero-Brufau S, Escobar GJ. Development and validation of an electronic medical record-based alert score for detection of inpatient deterioration outside the ICU. J Biomed Inform. 2016 12; 64:10-19. PMID: 27658885.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Butwick AJ, Walsh EM, Kuzniewicz M, Li SX, Escobar GJ. Patterns and predictors of severe postpartum anemia after Cesarean section. Transfusion. 2017 01; 57(1):36-44. PMID: 27618767.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Courtright KR, Madden V, Gabler NB, Cooney E, Small DS, Troxel A, Casarett D, Ersek M, Cassel JB, Nicholas LH, Escobar G, Hill SH, O'Brien D, Vogel M, Halpern SD. Rationale and Design of the Randomized Evaluation of Default Access to Palliative Services (REDAPS) Trial. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2016 09; 13(9):1629-39. PMID: 27348271.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Liu VX, Morehouse JW, Marelich GP, Soule J, Russell T, Skeath M, Adams C, Escobar GJ, Whippy A. Multicenter Implementation of a Treatment Bundle for Patients with Sepsis and Intermediate Lactate Values. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 06 01; 193(11):1264-70. PMID: 26695114.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Kuzniewicz MW, Walsh EM, Li S, Fischer A, Escobar GJ. Development and Implementation of an Early-Onset Sepsis Calculator to Guide Antibiotic Management in Late Preterm and Term Neonates. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2016 May; 42(5):232-9. PMID: 27066927.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Kim YS, Escobar GJ, Halpern SD, Greene JD, Kipnis P, Liu V. The Natural History of Changes in Preferences for Life-Sustaining Treatments and Implications for Inpatient Mortality in Younger and Older Hospitalized Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016 05; 64(5):981-9. PMID: 27119583.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Carroll KN, Gebretsadik T, Escobar GJ, Wu P, Li SX, Walsh EM, Mitchel E, Sloan CD, Dupont WD, Hartert TV. Respiratory syncytial virus immunoprophylaxis in high-risk infants and development of childhood asthma. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 01; 139(1):66-71.e3. PMID: 27212083.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Wu P, Feldman AS, Rosas-Salazar C, James K, Escobar G, Gebretsadik T, Li SX, Carroll KN, Walsh E, Mitchel E, Das S, Kumar R, Yu C, Dupont WD, Hartert TV. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151705. PMID: 27002979; PMCID: PMC4803347.
    35. Amarasingham R, Audet AM, Bates DW, Glenn Cohen I, Entwistle M, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Etheredge L, Lo B, Ohno-Machado L, Ram S, Saria S, Schilling LM, Shahi A, Stewart WF, Steyerberg EW, Xie B. Consensus Statement on Electronic Health Predictive Analytics: A Guiding Framework to Address Challenges. EGEMS (Wash DC). 2016; 4(1):1163. PMID: 27141516.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Liu V, Herbert D, Foss-Durant A, Marelich GP, Patel A, Whippy A, Turk BJ, Ragins AI, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. Evaluation Following Staggered Implementation of the "Rethinking Critical Care" ICU Care Bundle in a Multicenter Community Setting. Crit Care Med. 2016 Mar; 44(3):460-7. PMID: 26540402; PMCID: PMC4764399 [Available on 03/01/17].
    37. Seymour CW, Liu VX, Iwashyna TJ, Brunkhorst FM, Rea TD, Scherag A, Rubenfeld G, Kahn JM, Shankar-Hari M, Singer M, Deutschman CS, Escobar GJ, Angus DC. Assessment of Clinical Criteria for Sepsis: For the Third International Consensus Definitions for Sepsis and Septic Shock (Sepsis-3). JAMA. 2016 Feb 23; 315(8):762-74. PMID: 26903335.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Escobar GJ, Ragins A, Scheirer P, Liu V, Robles J, Kipnis P. Nonelective Rehospitalizations and Postdischarge Mortality: Predictive Models Suitable for Use in Real Time. Med Care. 2015 Nov; 53(11):916-23. PMID: 26465120; PMCID: PMC4605276.
    39. Romero-Brufau S, Huddleston JM, Escobar GJ, Liebow M. Why the C-statistic is not informative to evaluate early warning scores and what metrics to use. Crit Care. 2015 Aug 13; 19:285. PMID: 26268570; PMCID: PMC4535737.
    40. Mark DG, Vinson DR, Hung YY, Anderson ES, Escobar GJ, Carr BG, Abella BS, Ballard DW. Lack of improved outcomes with increased use of targeted temperature management following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a multicenter retrospective cohort study. Resuscitation. 2014 Nov; 85(11):1549-56. PMID: 25180922.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Roubinian NH, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Swain BE, Gardner MN, Kipnis P, Triulzi DJ, Gottschall JL, Wu Y, Carson JL, Kleinman SH, Murphy EL. Trends in red blood cell transfusion and 30-day mortality among hospitalized patients. Transfusion. 2014 Oct; 54(10 Pt 2):2678-86. PMID: 25135770; PMCID: PMC4197097.
    42. Roubinian NH, Escobar GJ, Liu V, Gardner MN, Carson JL, Kleinman SH, Murphy EL. Decreased red blood cell use and mortality in hospitalized patients. JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Aug; 174(8):1405-7. PMID: 24978650; PMCID: PMC4445732.
    43. Newman TB, Draper D, Puopolo KM, Wi S, Escobar GJ. Combining immature and total neutrophil counts to predict early onset sepsis in term and late preterm newborns: use of the I/T2. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2014 Aug; 33(8):798-802. PMID: 24503598; PMCID: PMC4122647.
    44. Liu V, Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Soule J, Whippy A, Angus DC, Iwashyna TJ. Hospital deaths in patients with sepsis from 2 independent cohorts. JAMA. 2014 Jul 02; 312(1):90-2. PMID: 24838355.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Prescott HC, Langa KM, Liu V, Escobar GJ, Iwashyna TJ. Increased 1-year healthcare use in survivors of severe sepsis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul 01; 190(1):62-9. PMID: 24872085; PMCID: PMC4226030.
    46. Bates DW, Saria S, Ohno-Machado L, Shah A, Escobar G. Big data in health care: using analytics to identify and manage high-risk and high-cost patients. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Jul; 33(7):1123-31. PMID: 25006137.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Fuentes-Afflick E, Odouli R, Escobar GJ, Stewart AL, Hessol NA. Maternal acculturation and the prenatal care experience. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2014 Aug; 23(8):688-706. PMID: 24979178; PMCID: PMC4129971.
    48. Roubinian NH, Murphy EL, Swain BE, Gardner MN, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Predicting red blood cell transfusion in hospitalized patients: role of hemoglobin level, comorbidities, and illness severity. BMC Health Serv Res. 2014 May 10; 14:213. PMID: 24884605; PMCID: PMC4101854.
    49. Liu V, Lei X, Prescott HC, Kipnis P, Iwashyna TJ, Escobar GJ. Hospital readmission and healthcare utilization following sepsis in community settings. J Hosp Med. 2014 Aug; 9(8):502-7. PMID: 24700730; PMCID: PMC4241549.
    50. Camargo CA, Budinger GR, Escobar GJ, Hansel NN, Hanson CK, Huffnagle GB, Buist AS. Promotion of lung health: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Apr; 11 Suppl 3:S125-38. PMID: 24754821; PMCID: PMC4112505.
    51. Kipnis P, Liu V, Escobar GJ. Accuracy of hospital standardized mortality rates: effects of model calibration. Med Care. 2014 Apr; 52(4):378-84. PMID: 24848209.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Ballesca MA, LaGuardia JC, Lee PC, Hwang AM, Park DK, Gardner MN, Turk BJ, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. An electronic order set for acute myocardial infarction is associated with improved patient outcomes through better adherence to clinical practice guidelines. J Hosp Med. 2014 Mar; 9(3):155-61. PMID: 24493376.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Escobar GJ, Puopolo KM, Wi S, Turk BJ, Kuzniewicz MW, Walsh EM, Newman TB, Zupancic J, Lieberman E, Draper D. Stratification of risk of early-onset sepsis in newborns = 34 weeks' gestation. Pediatrics. 2014 Jan; 133(1):30-6. PMID: 24366992; PMCID: PMC4079292.
    54. Escobar GJ. Respiratory syncytial virus infection is linked to recurrent wheezing in healthy premature infants. J Pediatr. 2013 Nov; 163(5):1531. PMID: 24160662.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Liu V, Morehouse JW, Soule J, Whippy A, Escobar GJ. Fluid volume, lactate values, and mortality in sepsis patients with intermediate lactate values. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2013 Oct; 10(5):466-73. PMID: 24004068.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Kuzniewicz MW, Parker SJ, Schnake-Mahl A, Escobar GJ. Hospital readmissions and emergency department visits in moderate preterm, late preterm, and early term infants. Clin Perinatol. 2013 Dec; 40(4):753-75. PMID: 24182960.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Liu V, Clark MP, Mendoza M, Saket R, Gardner MN, Turk BJ, Escobar GJ. Automated identification of pneumonia in chest radiograph reports in critically ill patients. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2013 Aug 15; 13:90. PMID: 23947340; PMCID: PMC3765332.
    58. Escobar GJ, Masaquel AS, Li SX, Walsh EM, Kipnis P. Persistent recurring wheezing in the fifth year of life after laboratory-confirmed, medically attended respiratory syncytial virus infection in infancy. BMC Pediatr. 2013 Jun 19; 13:97. PMID: 23782528; PMCID: PMC3703269.
    59. Escobar GJ, Gardner MN, Greene JD, Draper D, Kipnis P. Risk-adjusting hospital mortality using a comprehensive electronic record in an integrated health care delivery system. Med Care. 2013 May; 51(5):446-53. PMID: 23579354.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Puopolo KM, Escobar GJ. Early-onset sepsis: a predictive model based on maternal risk factors. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Apr; 25(2):161-6. PMID: 23407183.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Escobar GJ, Gebretsadik T, Carroll K, Li SX, Walsh EM, Wu P, Mitchel E, Sloan C, Hartert T. Adherence to Immunoprophylaxis Regimens for Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection in Insured and Medicaid Populations. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2013 Sep; 2(3):205-14. PMID: 24921044; PMCID: PMC4043196.
    62. James KM, Gebretsadik T, Escobar GJ, Wu P, Carroll KN, Li SX, Walsh EM, Mitchel EF, Sloan C, Hartert TV. Risk of childhood asthma following infant bronchiolitis during the respiratory syncytial virus season. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jul; 132(1):227-9. PMID: 23419541.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Liu V, Turk BJ, Ragins AI, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. An electronic Simplified Acute Physiology Score-based risk adjustment score for critical illness in an integrated healthcare system. Crit Care Med. 2013 Jan; 41(1):41-8. PMID: 23222263.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Delgado MK, Liu V, Pines JM, Kipnis P, Gardner MN, Escobar GJ. Risk factors for unplanned transfer to intensive care within 24 hours of admission from the emergency department in an integrated healthcare system. J Hosp Med. 2013 Jan; 8(1):13-9. PMID: 23024040.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Liu V, Turk BJ, Rizk NW, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. The association between sepsis and potential medical injury among hospitalized patients. Chest. 2012 Sep; 142(3):606-613. PMID: 22383667.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Hessol NA, Odouli R, Escobar GJ, Stewart AL, Fuentes-Afflick E. Interpersonal processes of care and cesarean delivery in two health care settings. Am J Public Health. 2012 Sep; 102(9):1722-8. PMID: 22720762; PMCID: PMC3482097.
    67. Flaherman VJ, Ragins AI, Li SX, Kipnis P, Masaquel A, Escobar GJ. Frequency, duration and predictors of bronchiolitis episodes of care among infants =32?weeks gestation in a large integrated healthcare system: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Health Serv Res. 2012 Jun 08; 12:144. PMID: 22682080; PMCID: PMC3407513.
    68. Escobar GJ, LaGuardia JC, Turk BJ, Ragins A, Kipnis P, Draper D. Early detection of impending physiologic deterioration among patients who are not in intensive care: development of predictive models using data from an automated electronic medical record. J Hosp Med. 2012 May-Jun; 7(5):388-95. PMID: 22447632.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Wong J, Taljaard M, Forster AJ, Escobar GJ, van Walraven C. Addition of time-dependent covariates to a survival model significantly improved predictions for daily risk of hospital death. J Eval Clin Pract. 2013 Apr; 19(2):351-7. PMID: 22409151.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Yamamoto M, Feigenbaum SL, Crites Y, Escobar GJ, Yang J, Ferrara A, Lo JC. Risk of preterm delivery in non-diabetic women with polycystic ovarian syndrome. J Perinatol. 2012 Oct; 32(10):770-6. PMID: 22261835; PMCID: PMC3570271.
    71. Flaherman VJ, Kuzniewicz MW, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Total serum bilirubin exceeding exchange transfusion thresholds in the setting of universal screening. J Pediatr. 2012 May; 160(5):796-800.e1. PMID: 22133423.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Dukhovny D, Dukhovny S, Pursley DM, Escobar GJ, McCormick MC, Mao WY, Zupancic JA. The impact of maternal characteristics on the moderately premature infant: an antenatal maternal transport clinical prediction rule. J Perinatol. 2012 Jul; 32(7):532-8. PMID: 22076416; PMCID: PMC3573135.
    73. Liu V, Kipnis P, Rizk NW, Escobar GJ. Adverse outcomes associated with delayed intensive care unit transfers in an integrated healthcare system. J Hosp Med. 2012 Mar; 7(3):224-30. PMID: 22038879.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Puopolo KM, Draper D, Wi S, Newman TB, Zupancic J, Lieberman E, Smith M, Escobar GJ. Estimating the probability of neonatal early-onset infection on the basis of maternal risk factors. Pediatrics. 2011 Nov; 128(5):e1155-63. PMID: 22025590; PMCID: PMC3208962.
    75. Navar-Boggan AM, Halsey NA, Escobar GJ, Golden WC, Klein NP. Underimmunization at discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2012 May; 32(5):363-7. PMID: 21836550.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Wong J, Taljaard M, Forster AJ, Escobar GJ, van Walraven C. Derivation and validation of a model to predict daily risk of death in hospital. Med Care. 2011 Aug; 49(8):734-43. PMID: 21478775.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Lorch SA, Srinivasan L, Escobar GJ. Epidemiology of apnea and bradycardia resolution in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2011 Aug; 128(2):e366-73. PMID: 21746726; PMCID: PMC3387856.
    78. Kim LH, Caughey AB, Laguardia JC, Escobar GJ. Racial and ethnic differences in the prevalence of placenta previa. J Perinatol. 2012 Apr; 32(4):260-4. PMID: 21720307.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Eichenwald EC, Zupancic JA, Mao WY, Richardson DK, McCormick MC, Escobar GJ. Variation in diagnosis of apnea in moderately preterm infants predicts length of stay. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan; 127(1):e53-8. PMID: 21187315.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Gardner MN, Marelich GP, Quick B, Kipnis P. Intra-hospital transfers to a higher level of care: contribution to total hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality and length of stay (LOS). J Hosp Med. 2011 Feb; 6(2):74-80. PMID: 21290579.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Flaherman V, Li S, Ragins A, Masaquel A, Kipnis P, Escobar GJ. Respiratory syncytial virus testing during bronchiolitis episodes of care in an integrated health care delivery system: a retrospective cohort study. Clin Ther. 2010 Dec; 32(13):2220-9. PMID: 21316538.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Davis AR, Rosenthal P, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Interpreting conjugated bilirubin levels in newborns. J Pediatr. 2011 Apr; 158(4):562-565.e1. PMID: 21074172; PMCID: PMC3058149.
    83. Newman TB, Puopolo KM, Wi S, Draper D, Escobar GJ. Interpreting complete blood counts soon after birth in newborns at risk for sepsis. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov; 126(5):903-9. PMID: 20974782; PMCID: PMC3197862.
    84. Escobar GJ, Ragins A, Li SX, Prager L, Masaquel AS, Kipnis P. Recurrent wheezing in the third year of life among children born at 32 weeks' gestation or later: relationship to laboratory-confirmed, medically attended infection with respiratory syncytial virus during the first year of life. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2010 Oct; 164(10):915-22. PMID: 20921348.
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    85. Harrison GW, Escobar GJ. Length of stay and imminent discharge probability distributions from multistage models: variation by diagnosis, severity of illness, and hospital. Health Care Manag Sci. 2010 Sep; 13(3):268-79. PMID: 20715309.
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    86. Ray KN, Escobar GJ, Lorch SA. Premature infants born to adolescent mothers: health care utilization after initial discharge. Acad Pediatr. 2010 Sep-Oct; 10(5):302-8. PMID: 20816654.
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    87. Liu V, Kipnis P, Gould MK, Escobar GJ. Length of stay predictions: improvements through the use of automated laboratory and comorbidity variables. Med Care. 2010 Aug; 48(8):739-44. PMID: 20613662.
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    88. Kipnis P, Escobar GJ, Draper D. Effect of choice of estimation method on inter-hospital mortality rate comparisons. Med Care. 2010 May; 48(5):458-65. PMID: 20393365.
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    89. Caughey AB, Cheng YW, Stotland NE, Washington AE, Escobar GJ. Maternal and paternal race/ethnicity are both associated with gestational diabetes. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Jun; 202(6):616.e1-5. PMID: 20400060.
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    90. Usatin D, Liljestrand P, Kuzniewicz MW, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Effect of neonatal jaundice and phototherapy on the frequency of first-year outpatient visits. Pediatrics. 2010 Apr; 125(4):729-34. PMID: 20231183; PMCID: PMC3197860.
    91. Navar-Boggan AM, Halsey NA, Golden WC, Escobar GJ, Massolo M, Klein NP. Risk of fever and sepsis evaluations after routine immunizations in the neonatal intensive care unit. J Perinatol. 2010 Sep; 30(9):604-9. PMID: 20182438.
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    92. Profit J, Petersen LA, McCormick MC, Escobar GJ, Coleman-Phox K, Zheng Z, Pietz K, Zupancic JA. Patient-to-nurse ratios and outcomes of moderately preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2010 Feb; 125(2):320-6. PMID: 20064868; PMCID: PMC3151172.
    93. van Walraven C, Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Forster AJ. The Kaiser Permanente inpatient risk adjustment methodology was valid in an external patient population. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010 Jul; 63(7):798-803. PMID: 20004550.
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    94. Kuzniewicz MW, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Impact of universal bilirubin screening on severe hyperbilirubinemia and phototherapy use. Pediatrics. 2009 Oct; 124(4):1031-9. PMID: 19786442; PMCID: PMC2858633.
    95. Lorch SA, Baiocchi M, Silber JH, Even-Shoshan O, Escobar GJ, Small DS. The role of outpatient facilities in explaining variations in risk-adjusted readmission rates between hospitals. Health Serv Res. 2010 Feb; 45(1):24-41. PMID: 19780853; PMCID: PMC2813435.
    96. Escobar GJ. Severity of illness scoring: one step closer to "the trenches". Indian Pediatr. 2009 Sep; 46(9):765-6. PMID: 19812421.
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    97. Lorch SA, Wade KC, Bakewell-Sachs S, Medoff-Cooper B, Silber JH, Escobar GJ. Antibiotic use in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2010 Mar; 49(3):249-57. PMID: 19448131.
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    98. Bakewell-Sachs S, Medoff-Cooper B, Escobar GJ, Silber JH, Lorch SA. Infant functional status: the timing of physiologic maturation of premature infants. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):e878-86. PMID: 19403481.
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    99. Newman TB, Kuzniewicz MW, Liljestrand P, Wi S, McCulloch C, Escobar GJ. Numbers needed to treat with phototherapy according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. Pediatrics. 2009 May; 123(5):1352-9. PMID: 19403502; PMCID: PMC2843697.
    100. Caughey AB, Stotland NE, Washington AE, Escobar GJ. Who is at risk for prolonged and postterm pregnancy? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jun; 200(6):683.e1-5. PMID: 19380120.
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    101. Kuzniewicz M, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. No association between hyperbilirubinemia and attention-deficit disorder. Pediatrics. 2009 Feb; 123(2):e367-8. PMID: 19171601.
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    102. Armstrong MA, Kaskutas LA, Witbrodt J, Taillac CJ, Hung YY, Osejo VM, Escobar GJ. Using drink size to talk about drinking during pregnancy: a randomized clinical trial of Early Start Plus. Soc Work Health Care. 2009; 48(1):90-103. PMID: 19197768; PMCID: PMC2814155.
    103. Silber JH, Lorch SA, Rosenbaum PR, Medoff-Cooper B, Bakewell-Sachs S, Millman A, Mi L, Even-Shoshan O, Escobar GJ. Time to send the preemie home? Additional maturity at discharge and subsequent health care costs and outcomes. Health Serv Res. 2009 Apr; 44(2 Pt 1):444-63. PMID: 19207592; PMCID: PMC2677048.
    104. Petrini JR, Dias T, McCormick MC, Massolo ML, Green NS, Escobar GJ. Increased risk of adverse neurological development for late preterm infants. J Pediatr. 2009 Feb; 154(2):169-76. PMID: 19081113.
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    105. de Araujo A, de Barros Lopes A, Trucollo Michalczuk M, Stifft J, Nardelli E, Escobar G, Rossi G, Alvares-da-Silva MR. Is there yet any place for reagent strips in diagnosing spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotic patients? An accuracy and cost-effectiveness study in Brazil. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Dec; 23(12):1895-900. PMID: 19120878.
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    106. Wade KC, Lorch SA, Bakewell-Sachs S, Medoff-Cooper B, Silber JH, Escobar GJ. Pediatric care for preterm infants after NICU discharge: high number of office visits and prescription medications. J Perinatol. 2008 Oct; 28(10):696-701. PMID: 18596711.
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    107. McCormick MC, Escobar GJ, Zheng Z, Richardson DK. Factors influencing parental satisfaction with neonatal intensive care among the families of moderately premature infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):1111-8. PMID: 18519480.
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    108. Kuzniewicz MW, Escobar GJ, Wi S, Liljestrand P, McCulloch C, Newman TB. Risk factors for severe hyperbilirubinemia among infants with borderline bilirubin levels: a nested case-control study. J Pediatr. 2008 Aug; 153(2):234-40. PMID: 18534217; PMCID: PMC3142930.
    109. Klein NP, Massolo ML, Greene J, Dekker CL, Black S, Escobar GJ. Risk factors for developing apnea after immunization in the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):463-9. PMID: 18310193.
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    110. Escobar GJ, Fireman BH, Palen TE, Gardner MN, Lee JY, Clark MP, Kipnis P. Risk adjusting community-acquired pneumonia hospital outcomes using automated databases. Am J Manag Care. 2008 Mar; 14(3):158-66. PMID: 18333708.
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    111. Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Scheirer P, Gardner MN, Draper D, Kipnis P. Risk-adjusting hospital inpatient mortality using automated inpatient, outpatient, and laboratory databases. Med Care. 2008 Mar; 46(3):232-9. PMID: 18388836.
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    112. Liljestrand P, Jeremy RJ, Wu YW, Ferriero DM, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Use of the motor performance checklist to study motor outcomes in 5-year-olds. J Paediatr Child Health. 2009 Jun; 45(6):368-74. PMID: 17803665.
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    113. Lorch SA, Wade KC, Bakewell-Sachs S, Medoff-Cooper B, Escobar GJ, Silber JH. Racial differences in the use of respiratory medications in premature infants after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. J Pediatr. 2007 Dec; 151(6):604-10, 610.e1. PMID: 18035139.
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    114. Escobar GJ, Liljestrand P, Hudes ES, Ferriero DM, Wu YW, Jeremy RJ, Newman TB. Five-year neurodevelopmental outcome of neonatal dehydration. J Pediatr. 2007 Aug; 151(2):127-33, 133.e1. PMID: 17643761; PMCID: PMC2233705.
    115. Kuzniewicz M, Draper D, Escobar GJ. Incorporation of physiological trend and interaction effects in neonatal severity of illness scores: an experiment using a variant of the Richardson score. Intensive Care Med. 2007 Sep; 33(9):1602-8. PMID: 17576539.
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    116. Profit J, McCormick MC, Escobar GJ, Richardson DK, Zheng Z, Coleman-Phox K, Roberts R, Zupancic JA. Neonatal intensive care unit census influences discharge of moderately preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2007 Feb; 119(2):314-9. PMID: 17272621; PMCID: PMC3151170.
    117. Caughey AB, Stotland NE, Washington AE, Escobar GJ. Maternal and obstetric complications of pregnancy are associated with increasing gestational age at term. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Feb; 196(2):155.e1-6. PMID: 17306661; PMCID: PMC1941614.
    118. Zupancic JA, Richardson DK, Horbar JD, Carpenter JH, Lee SK, Escobar GJ. Revalidation of the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology in the Vermont Oxford Network. Pediatrics. 2007 Jan; 119(1):e156-63. PMID: 17158947.
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    119. Ferrara A, Weiss NS, Hedderson MM, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV, Ergas IJ, Peng T, Escobar GJ, Pettitt DJ, Sacks DA. Pregnancy plasma glucose levels exceeding the American Diabetes Association thresholds, but below the National Diabetes Data Group thresholds for gestational diabetes mellitus, are related to the risk of neonatal macrosomia, hypoglycaemia and hyperbilirubinaemia. Diabetologia. 2007 Feb; 50(2):298-306. PMID: 17103140.
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    120. Lo JC, Feigenbaum SL, Escobar GJ, Yang J, Crites YM, Ferrara A. Increased prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus among women with diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome: a population-based study. Diabetes Care. 2006 Aug; 29(8):1915-7. PMID: 16873802.
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    121. Newman TB, Liljestrand P, Jeremy RJ, Ferriero DM, Wu YW, Hudes ES, Escobar GJ. Outcomes among newborns with total serum bilirubin levels of 25 mg per deciliter or more. N Engl J Med. 2006 May 04; 354(18):1889-900. PMID: 16672700.
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    122. Escobar GJ, McCormick MC, Zupancic JA, Coleman-Phox K, Armstrong MA, Greene JD, Eichenwald EC, Richardson DK. Unstudied infants: outcomes of moderately premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jul; 91(4):F238-44. PMID: 16611647; PMCID: PMC2672722.
    123. Escobar GJ, Clark RH, Greene JD. Short-term outcomes of infants born at 35 and 36 weeks gestation: we need to ask more questions. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Feb; 30(1):28-33. PMID: 16549211.
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    124. McCormick MC, Escobar GJ, Zheng Z, Richardson DK. Place of birth and variations in management of late preterm ("near-term") infants. Semin Perinatol. 2006 Feb; 30(1):44-7. PMID: 16549213.
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    125. Profit J, Zupancic JA, McCormick MC, Richardson DK, Escobar GJ, Tucker J, Tarnow-Mordi W, Parry G. Moderately premature infants at Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program in California are discharged home earlier than their peers in Massachusetts and the United Kingdom. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2006 Jul; 91(4):F245-50. PMID: 16449257; PMCID: PMC2672723.
    126. Brawarsky P, Stotland NE, Jackson RA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Escobar GJ, Rubashkin N, Haas JS. Pre-pregnancy and pregnancy-related factors and the risk of excessive or inadequate gestational weight gain. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2005 Nov; 91(2):125-31. PMID: 16202415.
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    127. Caughey AB, Stotland NE, Washington AE, Escobar GJ. Maternal ethnicity, paternal ethnicity, and parental ethnic discordance: predictors of preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Jul; 106(1):156-61. PMID: 15994632.
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    128. Riley EH, Fuentes-Afflick E, Jackson RA, Escobar GJ, Brawarsky P, Schreiber M, Haas JS. Correlates of prescription drug use during pregnancy. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Jun; 14(5):401-9. PMID: 15989412.
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    129. Escobar GJ. What have we learned from observational studies on neonatal sepsis? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2005 May; 6(3 Suppl):S138-45. PMID: 15857547.
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    130. Smith VC, Zupancic JA, McCormick MC, Croen LA, Greene J, Escobar GJ, Richardson DK. Trends in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia rates between 1994 and 2002. J Pediatr. 2005 Apr; 146(4):469-73. PMID: 15812448.
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    131. Stotland NE, Haas JS, Brawarsky P, Jackson RA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Escobar GJ. Body mass index, provider advice, and target gestational weight gain. Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Mar; 105(3):633-8. PMID: 15738036.
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    132. Newman TB, Liljestrand P, Escobar GJ. Combining clinical risk factors with serum bilirubin levels to predict hyperbilirubinemia in newborns. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Feb; 159(2):113-9. PMID: 15699303.
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    133. Escobar GJ, Greene JD, Hulac P, Kincannon E, Bischoff K, Gardner MN, Armstrong MA, France EK. Rehospitalisation after birth hospitalisation: patterns among infants of all gestations. Arch Dis Child. 2005 Feb; 90(2):125-31. PMID: 15665162; PMCID: PMC1720242.
    134. Haas JS, Jackson RA, Fuentes-Afflick E, Stewart AL, Dean ML, Brawarsky P, Escobar GJ. Changes in the health status of women during and after pregnancy. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Jan; 20(1):45-51. PMID: 15693927; PMCID: PMC1490030.
    135. Haas JS, Fuentes-Afflick E, Stewart AL, Jackson RA, Dean ML, Brawarsky P, Escobar GJ. Prepregnancy health status and the risk of preterm delivery. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2005 Jan; 159(1):58-63. PMID: 15630059.
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    136. Stotland NE, Caughey AB, Breed EM, Escobar GJ. Risk factors and obstetric complications associated with macrosomia. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2004 Dec; 87(3):220-6. PMID: 15548393.
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    137. Escobar GJ, Shaheen SM, Breed EM, Botas C, Greene JD, Yoshida CK, Zupancic J, Newman TB. Richardson score predicts short-term adverse respiratory outcomes in newborns >/=34 weeks gestation. J Pediatr. 2004 Dec; 145(6):754-60. PMID: 15580196.
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    138. Wu YW, March WM, Croen LA, Grether JK, Escobar GJ, Newman TB. Perinatal stroke in children with motor impairment: a population-based study. Pediatrics. 2004 Sep; 114(3):612-9. PMID: 15342829.
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    139. Newman TB, Liljestrand PJ, Escobar GJ. Hyperbilirubinemia benchmarking. Pediatrics. 2004 Jul; 114(1):323. PMID: 15231954.
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    140. Smith VC, Zupancic JA, McCormick MC, Croen LA, Greene J, Escobar GJ, Richardson DK. Rehospitalization in the first year of life among infants with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. J Pediatr. 2004 Jun; 144(6):799-803. PMID: 15192629.
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    141. Wu YW, Escobar GJ, Grether JK, Croen LA, Greene JD, Newman TB. Chorioamnionitis and cerebral palsy in term and near-term infants. JAMA. 2003 Nov 26; 290(20):2677-84. PMID: 14645309.
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    142. Caughey AB, Stotland NE, Escobar GJ. What is the best measure of maternal complications of term pregnancy: ongoing pregnancies or pregnancies delivered? Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct; 189(4):1047-52. PMID: 14586353.
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    143. Taveras EM, Capra AM, Braveman PA, Jensvold NG, Escobar GJ, Lieu TA. Clinician support and psychosocial risk factors associated with breastfeeding discontinuation. Pediatrics. 2003 Jul; 112(1 Pt 1):108-15. PMID: 12837875.
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    144. Newman TB, Liljestrand P, Escobar GJ. Infants with bilirubin levels of 30 mg/dL or more in a large managed care organization. Pediatrics. 2003 Jun; 111(6 Pt 1):1303-11. PMID: 12777545.
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    145. Atkinson LR, Escobar GJ, Takayama JI, Newman TB. Phototherapy use in jaundiced newborns in a large managed care organization: do clinicians adhere to the guideline? Pediatrics. 2003 May; 111(5 Pt 1):e555-61. PMID: 12728109.
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    146. Escobar GJ. Effect of the systemic inflammatory response on biochemical markers of neonatal bacterial infection: a fresh look at old confounders. Clin Chem. 2003 Jan; 49(1):21-2. PMID: 12507956.
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    147. Armstrong MA, Gonzales Osejo V, Lieberman L, Carpenter DM, Pantoja PM, Escobar GJ. Perinatal substance abuse intervention in obstetric clinics decreases adverse neonatal outcomes. J Perinatol. 2003 Jan; 23(1):3-9. PMID: 12556919.
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    148. Newman TB, Liljestrand P, Escobar GJ. Jaundice noted in the first 24 hours after birth in a managed care organization. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Dec; 156(12):1244-50. PMID: 12444838.
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    149. Escobar GJ, Gonzales VM, Armstrong MA, Folck BF, Xiong B, Newman TB. Rehospitalization for neonatal dehydration: a nested case-control study. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2002 Feb; 156(2):155-61. PMID: 11814377.
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    150. Escobar GJ, Braveman PA, Ackerson L, Odouli R, Coleman-Phox K, Capra AM, Wong C, Lieu TA. A randomized comparison of home visits and hospital-based group follow-up visits after early postpartum discharge. Pediatrics. 2001 Sep; 108(3):719-27. PMID: 11533342.
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    151. Newman TB, Escobar GJ. Frequency of neonatal bilirubin testing and hyperbilirubinemia in a large health maintenance organization. Ambul Pediatr. 2001 Mar-Apr; 1(2):126. PMID: 11888386.
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    152. Richardson DK, Zupancic JA, Escobar GJ, Ogino M, Pursley DM, Mugford M. A critical review of cost reduction in neonatal intensive care. I. The structure of costs. J Perinatol. 2001 Mar; 21(2):107-15. PMID: 11324356.
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    153. Richardson DK, Zupancic JA, Escobar GJ, Ogino M, Pursley DM, Mugford M. A critical review of cost reduction in neonatal intensive care. II. Strategies for reduction. J Perinatol. 2001 Mar; 21(2):121-7. PMID: 11324358.
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    154. Richardson DK, Corcoran JD, Escobar GJ, Lee SK. SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II: Simplified newborn illness severity and mortality risk scores. J Pediatr. 2001 Jan; 138(1):92-100. PMID: 11148519.
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    155. Armstrong MA, Lieberman L, Carpenter DM, Gonzales VM, Usatin MS, Newman L, Escobar GJ. Early Start: an obstetric clinic-based, perinatal substance abuse intervention program. Qual Manag Health Care. 2001; 9(2):6-15. PMID: 14598626.
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    156. Newman TB, Xiong B, Gonzales VM, Escobar GJ. Prediction and prevention of extreme neonatal hyperbilirubinemia in a mature health maintenance organization. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2000 Nov; 154(11):1140-7. PMID: 11074857.
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    157. Escobar GJ, Li DK, Armstrong MA, Gardner MN, Folck BF, Verdi JE, Xiong B, Bergen R. Neonatal sepsis workups in infants >/=2000 grams at birth: A population-based study. Pediatrics. 2000 Aug; 106(2 Pt 1):256-63. PMID: 10920148.
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    158. Lieu TA, Braveman PA, Escobar GJ, Fischer AF, Jensvold NG, Capra AM. A randomized comparison of home and clinic follow-up visits after early postpartum hospital discharge. Pediatrics. 2000 May; 105(5):1058-65. PMID: 10790463.
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    159. Wilson A, Gardner MN, Armstrong MA, Folck BF, Escobar GJ. Neonatal assisted ventilation: predictors, frequency, and duration in a mature managed care organization. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr; 105(4 Pt 1):822-30. PMID: 10742327.
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    160. Joffe S, Lieu TA, Escobar GJ. The critical role of population-based epidemiology in cost-effectiveness research. Pediatrics. 2000 Apr; 105(4 Pt 1):862-3. PMID: 10742335.
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    161. Newman TB, Escobar GJ, Gonzales VM, Armstrong MA, Gardner MN, Folck BF. Frequency of neonatal bilirubin testing and hyperbilirubinemia in a large health maintenance organization. Pediatrics. 1999 Nov; 104(5 Pt 2):1198-203. PMID: 10545573.
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    162. Joffe S, Escobar GJ, Black SB, Armstrong MA, Lieu TA. Rehospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus among premature infants. Pediatrics. 1999 Oct; 104(4 Pt 1):894-9. PMID: 10506231.
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    163. Joffe S, Ray GT, Escobar GJ, Black SB, Lieu TA. Cost-effectiveness of respiratory syncytial virus prophylaxis among preterm infants. Pediatrics. 1999 Sep; 104(3 Pt 1):419-27. PMID: 10469764.
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    164. Escobar GJ, Joffe S, Gardner MN, Armstrong MA, Folck BF, Carpenter DM. Rehospitalization in the first two weeks after discharge from the neonatal intensive care unit. Pediatrics. 1999 Jul; 104(1):e2. PMID: 10390288.
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    165. Mohle-Boetani JC, Lieu TA, Ray GT, Escobar G. Preventing neonatal group B streptococcal disease: cost-effectiveness in a health maintenance organization and the impact of delayed hospital discharge for newborns who received intrapartum antibiotics. Pediatrics. 1999 Apr; 103(4 Pt 1):703-10. PMID: 10103290.
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    166. Escobar GJ. The neonatal "sepsis work-up": personal reflections on the development of an evidence-based approach toward newborn infections in a managed care organization. Pediatrics. 1999 Jan; 103(1 Suppl E):360-73. PMID: 9917478.
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    167. Lieu TA, Wikler C, Capra AM, Martin KE, Escobar GJ, Braveman PA. Clinical outcomes and maternal perceptions of an updated model of perinatal care. Pediatrics. 1998 Dec; 102(6):1437-44. PMID: 9832582.
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    168. Escobar GJ, Yanover M, Gardner MN, Golembeski D, Armstrong MA, Shum F, Kipnis P. Structured review of neonatal deaths in a managed care organisation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1998 Oct; 12(4):422-36. PMID: 9805715.
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    169. Richardson DK, Tarnow-Mordi WO, Escobar GJ. Neonatal risk scoring systems. Can they predict mortality and morbidity? Clin Perinatol. 1998 Sep; 25(3):591-611. PMID: 9779336.
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    170. Escobar GJ, Fischer A, Kremers R, Usatin MS, Macedo AM, Gardner MN. Rapid retrieval of neonatal outcomes data: the Kaiser Permanente Neonatal Minimum Data Set. Qual Manag Health Care. 1997; 5(4):19-33. PMID: 10169782.
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    171. Escobar GJ, Gardner MN, Chellino M, Fireman B, Verdi J, Yanover M. Identification of neonatal deaths in a large managed care organisation. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 1997 Jan; 11(1):93-104. PMID: 9018731.
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    172. Escobar GJ. Lumbar puncture in meningitis? Pediatrics. 1996 Jul; 98(1):166-7. PMID: 8668401.
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    173. Cavalier S, Escobar GJ, Fernbach SA, Quesenberry CP, Chellino M. Postdischarge utilization of medical services by high-risk infants: experience in a large managed care organization. Pediatrics. 1996 May; 97(5):693-9. PMID: 8628609.
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    174. Escobar GJ, Fischer A, Li DK, Kremers R, Armstrong MA. Score for neonatal acute physiology: validation in three Kaiser Permanente neonatal intensive care units. Pediatrics. 1995 Nov; 96(5 Pt 1):918-22. PMID: 7478836.
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    175. Escobar GJ, Zukin T, Usatin MS, Lemesurier J, Honeychurch D, Armstrong MA, Folck B. Early discontinuation of antibiotic treatment in newborns admitted to rule out sepsis: a decision rule. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 1994 Oct; 13(10):860-6. PMID: 7854883.
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    176. Escobar GJ. Prognosis of surviving very low birthweight infants: still in the dark. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1992 Jan; 99(1):1-3. PMID: 1532125.
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    177. Escobar GJ, Littenberg B, Petitti DB. Outcome among surviving very low birthweight infants: a meta-analysis. Arch Dis Child. 1991 Feb; 66(2):204-11. PMID: 1825773; PMCID: PMC1792838.
    178. Escobar GJ, Heyman MB, Smith WB, Thaler MM. Primary hemochromatosis in childhood. Pediatrics. 1987 Oct; 80(4):549-54. PMID: 3658574.
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    179. Escobar GJ, Salazar E, Chuy M. Beliefs regarding the etiology and treatment of infantile diarrhea in Lima, Peru. Soc Sci Med. 1983; 17(17):1257-69. PMID: 6635700.
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